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外文翻译--近期在中国内地农村地区改革和进步的发展-其他专业.doc

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外文翻译--近期在中国内地农村地区改革和进步的发展-其他专业.doc

中文2735字 本科毕业论文外文翻译 中文题目近期在中国内地农村地区改革和进步的发展 外文题目 Recent Reforms And Progress In Rural Development In Mainland China 出 处China Economic Issues,Number 5/07,June 2007 作 者 Raymond yip,Jun-yu Chan Nathan Chow 原 文 Recognising the economic disparity between rural and urban areas, the Mainland authorities have been placing increasing emphasis on building a ‘new socialist countryside’ in recent years as a key element in sustaining the Mainland’s robust growth and enhancing social harmony. Wide ranging reforms have been undertaken in policy areas such as taxation, rural finance, healthcare and education, with a view to increasing disposable income, fostering efficient resource allocation, as well as improving social provisions in rural areas. While it takes time for reform measures to address issues of a structural nature,there are signs that the living standard of rural residents has improved more noticeably over the past few years. Most notably, the growth rate of rural income has accelerated to catch up with its urban counterpart, and the rural-urban income gap has started to stabilize.Poverty reduction has also progressed at a rapid pace. The ongoing policy efforts are expected to show fuller impacts over the medium to long term in enhancing productivity in rural areas and improving the well-being of rural residents. Rural finance The financial system in rural areas has long been characterised by a lack of access to capital by farmers and small rural enterprises. High information collection costs and small loan sizes have rendered the lending business to the agricultural sector unprofitable for rural financial institutions. Also, loans to individual peasants, whose repayment ability is impaired by their limited pricing power in the increasingly competitive markets, represent a risky asset class from the perspective of lending institutions. As a result, rural financial institutions have strong incentives to use rural deposits for lending in urban areas to enhance their returns. The lack of credit from formal financial institutions then forces peasants to resort to relatives, friends or even usuries for funds. These informal funding sources are estimated to have satisfied more than 70 of borrowing needs in rural areas. To address these problems, the central government has taken steps to restructure the rural financial institutions, including Rural Credit Cooperatives RCCs, the China Postal Savings Bank CPSB and the Agricultural Development Bank of China ADBC. The aim is to transform them into competitive and commercially oriented institutions for offering a wide range of financial services to rural households and businesses, as well as improving the efficiency of financial intermediation in rural areas Diagram 1. Diagram RCCs are by far the most important financial institution providing credit to rural households in China, holding roughly 12 of total deposits and accounting for 91 of all agricultural loans at end-2006. However, lending processes of RCCs have long been characterised as bureaucratic and costly, since day-to-day operations are subject to significant influence from local leaders and the China Banking Regulatory Commission CBRC. Recognising this, a pilot RCC reform program was launched in 2003 to shift more responsibility for RCC governance to provincial and county governments, aiming ultimately at transforming township level RCCs into more commercially oriented institutions such as rural commercial banks and rural cooperative banks. A key component of the pilot program is the enhanced financial support for RCCs provided by the People’s Bank of China PBoC, which directly boosts RCCs’ lending capacity by purchasing substantial portions ofnon-performing loans held by RCCs with special central bank bills. The bills will then be redeemed by the PBoC if capital adequacy and governance of RCCs are subsequently improved. Another significant reform of improving the rural financial infrastructure is the transformation of the Postal Savings and Remittance Bureau PSRB into the CPSB in March 2007, which implies that the substantial postal savings funds are more readily available to rural areas. Previously the PSRB engaged in deposit taking and remittance services in postal offices without offering loans. Its huge branch network, as well as sizeable client and deposit base, make the newly established CPSB the fifth largest bank in China. The bank is required to focus on the retail and intermediary banking sectors, providing basic financial services particularly for rural households and companies. The establishment of the bank therefore marked a substantial step in China’s rural financial reform, greatly increasing supply of credit to the rural population. Likewise, the Agricultural Bank of China ABC, the second largest bank in China in terms of assets, will potentially become an important player in rural finance in the future after undergoing the necessary financing restructuring already completed by the other three state-owned nationwide commercial banks. Financing for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs has been identified by the central government as a key financial sector development in Mainland China and this is particularly important in rural areas. The ADBC, established in 1994, has been participating in financing infrastructure and contributes greatly to the urbanization process at the county level in rural China.One key initiative of the ADBC in recent years is to improve SME finance. In particular, the ADBC set up a new department in 2005 to provide technical assistance and lines of credit to commercial banks that are interested in SME finance. In collaboration with international organisations such as the World Bank, the ADBC aims to build upon best international practices in small-scale lending so as to develop similar expertise among commercial banks in Mainland China. The ADBC launched a pilot program in early 2006 with the city commercial banks in Baotou and Taizhou with the aim of rolling out the business throughout the branch networks of participating banks in all provinces by 2008. The improvement in the living standard of rural China is more readily reflected by the faster growth of rural income in the recent years, with rural income per capita rising by an average of 6.6 in real terms in 2001-06 and registering higher increases of over 8 in 2005 and 2006. This represents a remarkable recovery from the deceleration of growth to a 2.1 rise in 2000. Although remaining outpaced by urban income, rural income has increased at a more comparable growth rate since 2004,markedly closing the gap with the urban income growth to only 1.2 percentage points on average in 2004-06, from 5.4 percentage points in the preceding 5 years.As a result, the ratio of urban to rural income stabilised somewhat in the recent years, staying slightly over 3.0 since 2002, albeit still higher than the low of 2.3 in 1986 Charts 5 and 6. The favourable developments in rural output and income, coupled with the rapid urbanisation, have led to a notable reduction in poverty since the onset of Mainland China’s economic reforms in 1978 Charts 7 and 8. The number of rural residents living below the poverty line as defined by the Mainland government declined substantially from 250 million in 1978, or 30.7 of the population, to 24 million in 2005, or 2.5 of the population. The central government has clearly demonstrated its determination to improve the well-being of the rural population through reiterating on many occasions its commitments in addressing the “three rural issues” 三農問題, which are backed by concrete policy measures. The reforms are designed with a view to addressing the most critical issues and meeting the diverse needs of the rural population. The implementation of some major reforms is well timed and carefully planned, as reflected by the abolishment of the agricultural taxes and various fees amid the strong fiscal position of the government. For the rural population as a whole, their underprivileged treatment in terms of insufficient social provisions such as basic healthcare and free education is expected to be rectified gradually by increasing spending in these areas over the longer term. In addition, attention has been given to securing the rights of rural residents, as reflected by the increased protection of the rights of rural migrant workers. Also importantly, the reforms of rural finance are expected to enhance rural residents’ access to finance facilities and thus foster more efficient allocation of rural resources. All these reforms should help to alleviate the problem of rural poverty, improve the living standard in rural areas and build a more equitable and harmonious society in general. While it is too early to assess the full impact of the new rural policies, there appear to be positive results already. Growth of real rural per capita income has been on a rising trend since 2000. Rural income sources have become more diversified, reducing the reliance of the rural population on agricultural activities. The abolition of the agricultural taxes has saved around 5 of the income of a rural resident, with the elimination of school fees representing additional savings for rural households. In richer cities, rural migrant workers can now enjoy the same social benefits as the native urban residents, which is unprecedented. With the Mainland economy envisaged to continue its robust growth registered in the past few years, the central government is in a good position to intensify the reforms discussed above and push through reforms in other areas. The major policy areas under discussion include better protection ofland ownership, as well as improving the openness of local fiscal accounts and checks and balances between and within different levels of government. It is hoped that the ongoing reforms will achieve their goals in due course, enabling the rural population to share the fruits of Mainland China’s economic success. 译 文 在意识到城乡的经济不平等以后,最近?#25913;?#22823;陆?#26412;?#25226;强调建设社会主义新农村作为维持经济增长和促进社会和谐的关键因素。在某些政策领域,如税收,农村金融,医疗和教育广泛的改革已经开始进行,以提高?#29992;?#30340;可支配收入,促进资源的有效配置,同时提高农村地区的粮食供应水平。 尽管改革结构性的问题需要花费?#27426;?#30340;时间,有迹象表明,今年来农村?#29992;?#30340;生活水平有了显著的提高。最?#26723;?#27880;意的是,农村收入增长速度加快,赶上城市?#29992;?#25910;入,城乡收入差距趋向于稳定,贫困的减少也取得了快速的进展。正在进行的政策工作预期将对增强农村地区中长期的生产能力和提高农村?#29992;?#31119;利方面显示出更加充分的影响力。 农村金融 农村地区金融体系的特点是长期以来农民和乡村企业缺乏资金来源。高信息采集成本和小额贷款规模使得农村金融机构对农业部门的信贷业务无利可图。同?#20445;?#23545;于贷款企业来说,贷款给个体农民,他们的清偿能力往往在日益竞争的市场因为有限的定价能力而受损,那么这种贷款从贷款人的角度来说代表了一种风险资产类别。因此,农村金融机构有强烈的愿望来利用农村的存款放贷给城市?#29992;?#26469;增加他们的收入。正规金融机构信用的缺失,迫使农民向他们的亲戚朋友甚至是高利贷求助资金。这些分正规的资金来源估计能够满足农村多于70的借款需求。为?#31169;?#20915;这些问题,中央政府采取措施重建农村金融机构,包括农村信用合作社(RCCs),中国邮政储蓄银行(CPSB)和中国农业发展银行ADBC。这样做的目的是把他们变成为以竞争性和商业性为导向的机构,为农村?#29992;?#21644;企业提供广泛的金融服务,同时也提高农村地区金融中介机构的运转效率。(表格1) 农村金融机构包括正规金融机构和非正规金融机构,正规农村金融机构包括中国农业银行,农村信用合作社,中国农业发展银行,中国邮政储蓄银行,还包括其他的如农村商业银行,农村合作银行,其他商业银行的分支机构。非正规金融机构包括由自然人,企业法人,非政府机构法人创立的宏观金融机构。 农村信用合作社是目前在中国为农村?#29992;?#25552;供信贷业务的最重要的金融机构。在2006年末,它持有91的农业贷款中的大约12的农业存款和账户。?#27426;?#20892;村信用合作社的特点具有官僚主义,操作过程成本很高,因为它的日常操作受制于地区领导人的重要影响力,也受制于中国银行业监督管理委员会。由于这个原因,一个试点改革项目在2003年启动了,来把农村合作社的监管责任转移到省级或者是乡级政府,它的最终目的是把乡镇级别的农村信用合作社转变成为更以商业化为导向的金融机构,如农村商业银行和农村合作银?#23567;?#36825;个试点项目的一个重要组成部分是中国人民银行用特别银行汇票直接购买大量的农村信用合作社的坏账来强化农村信用合作社的贷款能力。当农村信用合作社的资本充足率和监管改善?#20445;?#36825;些汇票会由中国人民银行赎回。另一个重大的改革来改善农村地区金融基础设施的是在2007年3月把邮政储蓄银行及汇兑管理局PSRB)转变为CPSB,它暗示了大量的邮政储蓄基金将会提供给农村地区。以前,汇兑管理局从事存款及汇兑服务而不提供邮政贷款。庞大的分支网络,以及庞大的客户和存款基础,使新成立的CPSB成为在中国的第五大银?#23567;?#38134;行必须把注意力集中在零售和中介银行部门,尤其是对农村家庭和公司提供基本的金融服务。它的建立因此标志着中国农村金融改革的一大进步,大大提高了供应农村人口农村金融信贷。同样地,中国农业银行ABC,从资产来说是中国第二大银行,将很可能成为未来农村金融重要的一员在?#37038;?#20854;他三大国有全国性商业银行必要的融资体制改革已经完成以后。中小企业融资问题已被中央政府所认识并作为在中国大陆重点发展的问题,在农村地区这是特别重要的。这ADBC创建于一九九四年,积极参加融资基础设施而且有助于中国农村地区的城镇化水平。近年来ADBC的一个关键的措施是改善中小企业融资。?#26723;?#19968;提的是,在2005年该ADBC设立一个新的部门提供技术协助?#38405;?#20123;对中小企业融资?#34892;?#36259;的商业银行信贷。在与国?#39318;?#32455;例如世界银行)的合作中,ADBC建立了在小型贷款方面最好的国?#20351;?#20363;,从而更好地在中国大陆发展类似专业。ADBC于2006年初和在包头和台州的城市商业银行推出了一个试用项目,目的是在2008年在中国各省市参与的分支网络中推出这一业务。 近年来农村收入水平的快速增长?#20174;?#20102;农村?#29992;?#29983;活水平的改善,在2001年到2006年农村人均收入在?#23548;?#26465;件下平均上升6.6和在2005年和2006年注册更高的增长超过8,。这体现了在2000年的减速上升了2.1的一个显著的?#27492;鍘?#34429;然城市收入仍然超过农村收入,从2004年开始农民收入增加具有了更有可比性增长率,明显缩减了与城市的收入的差距,使得差距从前五年的平均5.4个百分点下为2004-2006年的平均仅1.2个百分点。结果,城市乡村收入比率在最近?#25913;昵?#20110;稳定,从2002年起保持略超3的水平,虽然仍然比1986年的最低水平2.3高。 图表5 农村收入增长赶超城市收入 图表6 近?#25913;?#31283;定的城市乡村收入缺口 在农村的产量和收入提供最优惠的发展,加上快速的城市化进程,会导致一个显著贫困的减少?#28304;?#20013;国大陆的1978年经济改革第7和第8图表。由政府规定的农村?#29992;?#29983;活在贫困线以下的数量已大幅减少,从1978年,2.5亿人口,占总人口的30.7,到2005年的240万占总人口的2.5。 中央政府已清楚地表明他的决心来解决农村人口的民生问题,通过多次重申并?#20449;到?#20915;“三农”问题的三農問題,并以具体的政策措施作为支持。这种改革的制定是为?#31169;?#20915;这个关键问题,满足不同农村?#29992;?#30340;需求。一些主要的改革的实施精心策划和精心安排的,废除各种费用,免除农业税费和稳健的政府的财政状况。农村人口作为一个整体而言,就社会不充分的供给而言,他们的那种被剥夺基本权利的待遇,如基本医疗和免费教育预计正逐渐被修正通过在较长时期内在这些地区增加开支。此外,保障农村?#29992;?#30340;权利也受到了关注,这可?#28304;?#36827;城务工人员的权利保护得到加强中同样重要的是,中国的改革农村金融有望提高农村?#29992;?#30340;融资渠道设施,从而促成农村资源的更有效的配置。所有这些改革将有助于缓解农村贫困、提高农村?#29992;?#29983;活水平和建立更为公平的、构建社会主义和?#25104;?#20250;。尽管现在评价新农村政策的全面影响还为时过早,但已有积极的结果了。?#23548;?#20892;村人均收入自2000年起一直呈上升的趋势。农民收入来源已经变得更多样化,?#26723;?#20102;农村人口对农业活动的?#35272;怠?#20892;业税费的废除为农村?#29992;?#22686;加了5的收入,另外学费的减免也增加了农村?#29992;?#30340;额外收入。在较富裕的城市,农民工现在可以享受与本地?#29992;?#21516;样的社会福利,这是前所未有的。随着中国大陆的经济继续在过去的?#25913;?#37324;注册的强劲地增长,中央政府正处在一个不错的位置上加大以上讨论的改革和在这些领域推行这些改革。讨论的主要政策领域包括更好的保护是失地农民的所有权,以及提高地方财务的公开度,强化不同层次的政府监督和制衡作用。通过正在进行的改革在?#23454;?#30340;方式将达到他们的目标,使农村人口分享中国大陆的经济成就的成果。

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