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外文翻譯--近期在中國內地農村地區改革和進步的發展-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯--近期在中國內地農村地區改革和進步的發展-其他專業.doc

中文2735字 本科畢業論文外文翻譯 中文題目近期在中國內地農村地區改革和進步的發展 外文題目 Recent Reforms And Progress In Rural Development In Mainland China 出 處China Economic Issues,Number 5/07,June 2007 作 者 Raymond yip,Jun-yu Chan Nathan Chow 原 文 Recognising the economic disparity between rural and urban areas, the Mainland authorities have been placing increasing emphasis on building a ‘new socialist countryside’ in recent years as a key element in sustaining the Mainland’s robust growth and enhancing social harmony. Wide ranging reforms have been undertaken in policy areas such as taxation, rural finance, healthcare and education, with a view to increasing disposable income, fostering efficient resource allocation, as well as improving social provisions in rural areas. While it takes time for reform measures to address issues of a structural nature,there are signs that the living standard of rural residents has improved more noticeably over the past few years. Most notably, the growth rate of rural income has accelerated to catch up with its urban counterpart, and the rural-urban income gap has started to stabilize.Poverty reduction has also progressed at a rapid pace. The ongoing policy efforts are expected to show fuller impacts over the medium to long term in enhancing productivity in rural areas and improving the well-being of rural residents. Rural finance The financial system in rural areas has long been characterised by a lack of access to capital by farmers and small rural enterprises. High information collection costs and small loan sizes have rendered the lending business to the agricultural sector unprofitable for rural financial institutions. Also, loans to individual peasants, whose repayment ability is impaired by their limited pricing power in the increasingly competitive markets, represent a risky asset class from the perspective of lending institutions. As a result, rural financial institutions have strong incentives to use rural deposits for lending in urban areas to enhance their returns. The lack of credit from formal financial institutions then forces peasants to resort to relatives, friends or even usuries for funds. These informal funding sources are estimated to have satisfied more than 70 of borrowing needs in rural areas. To address these problems, the central government has taken steps to restructure the rural financial institutions, including Rural Credit Cooperatives RCCs, the China Postal Savings Bank CPSB and the Agricultural Development Bank of China ADBC. The aim is to transform them into competitive and commercially oriented institutions for offering a wide range of financial services to rural households and businesses, as well as improving the efficiency of financial intermediation in rural areas Diagram 1. Diagram RCCs are by far the most important financial institution providing credit to rural households in China, holding roughly 12 of total deposits and accounting for 91 of all agricultural loans at end-2006. However, lending processes of RCCs have long been characterised as bureaucratic and costly, since day-to-day operations are subject to significant influence from local leaders and the China Banking Regulatory Commission CBRC. Recognising this, a pilot RCC reform program was launched in 2003 to shift more responsibility for RCC governance to provincial and county governments, aiming ultimately at transforming township level RCCs into more commercially oriented institutions such as rural commercial banks and rural cooperative banks. A key component of the pilot program is the enhanced financial support for RCCs provided by the People’s Bank of China PBoC, which directly boosts RCCs’ lending capacity by purchasing substantial portions ofnon-performing loans held by RCCs with special central bank bills. The bills will then be redeemed by the PBoC if capital adequacy and governance of RCCs are subsequently improved. Another significant reform of improving the rural financial infrastructure is the transformation of the Postal Savings and Remittance Bureau PSRB into the CPSB in March 2007, which implies that the substantial postal savings funds are more readily available to rural areas. Previously the PSRB engaged in deposit taking and remittance services in postal offices without offering loans. Its huge branch network, as well as sizeable client and deposit base, make the newly established CPSB the fifth largest bank in China. The bank is required to focus on the retail and intermediary banking sectors, providing basic financial services particularly for rural households and companies. The establishment of the bank therefore marked a substantial step in China’s rural financial reform, greatly increasing supply of credit to the rural population. Likewise, the Agricultural Bank of China ABC, the second largest bank in China in terms of assets, will potentially become an important player in rural finance in the future after undergoing the necessary financing restructuring already completed by the other three state-owned nationwide commercial banks. Financing for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs has been identified by the central government as a key financial sector development in Mainland China and this is particularly important in rural areas. The ADBC, established in 1994, has been participating in financing infrastructure and contributes greatly to the urbanization process at the county level in rural China.One key initiative of the ADBC in recent years is to improve SME finance. In particular, the ADBC set up a new department in 2005 to provide technical assistance and lines of credit to commercial banks that are interested in SME finance. In collaboration with international organisations such as the World Bank, the ADBC aims to build upon best international practices in small-scale lending so as to develop similar expertise among commercial banks in Mainland China. The ADBC launched a pilot program in early 2006 with the city commercial banks in Baotou and Taizhou with the aim of rolling out the business throughout the branch networks of participating banks in all provinces by 2008. The improvement in the living standard of rural China is more readily reflected by the faster growth of rural income in the recent years, with rural income per capita rising by an average of 6.6 in real terms in 2001-06 and registering higher increases of over 8 in 2005 and 2006. This represents a remarkable recovery from the deceleration of growth to a 2.1 rise in 2000. Although remaining outpaced by urban income, rural income has increased at a more comparable growth rate since 2004,markedly closing the gap with the urban income growth to only 1.2 percentage points on average in 2004-06, from 5.4 percentage points in the preceding 5 years.As a result, the ratio of urban to rural income stabilised somewhat in the recent years, staying slightly over 3.0 since 2002, albeit still higher than the low of 2.3 in 1986 Charts 5 and 6. The favourable developments in rural output and income, coupled with the rapid urbanisation, have led to a notable reduction in poverty since the onset of Mainland China’s economic reforms in 1978 Charts 7 and 8. The number of rural residents living below the poverty line as defined by the Mainland government declined substantially from 250 million in 1978, or 30.7 of the population, to 24 million in 2005, or 2.5 of the population. The central government has clearly demonstrated its determination to improve the well-being of the rural population through reiterating on many occasions its commitments in addressing the “three rural issues” 三農問題, which are backed by concrete policy measures. The reforms are designed with a view to addressing the most critical issues and meeting the diverse needs of the rural population. The implementation of some major reforms is well timed and carefully planned, as reflected by the abolishment of the agricultural taxes and various fees amid the strong fiscal position of the government. For the rural population as a whole, their underprivileged treatment in terms of insufficient social provisions such as basic healthcare and free education is expected to be rectified gradually by increasing spending in these areas over the longer term. In addition, attention has been given to securing the rights of rural residents, as reflected by the increased protection of the rights of rural migrant workers. Also importantly, the reforms of rural finance are expected to enhance rural residents’ access to finance facilities and thus foster more efficient allocation of rural resources. All these reforms should help to alleviate the problem of rural poverty, improve the living standard in rural areas and build a more equitable and harmonious society in general. While it is too early to assess the full impact of the new rural policies, there appear to be positive results already. Growth of real rural per capita income has been on a rising trend since 2000. Rural income sources have become more diversified, reducing the reliance of the rural population on agricultural activities. The abolition of the agricultural taxes has saved around 5 of the income of a rural resident, with the elimination of school fees representing additional savings for rural households. In richer cities, rural migrant workers can now enjoy the same social benefits as the native urban residents, which is unprecedented. With the Mainland economy envisaged to continue its robust growth registered in the past few years, the central government is in a good position to intensify the reforms discussed above and push through reforms in other areas. The major policy areas under discussion include better protection ofland ownership, as well as improving the openness of local fiscal accounts and checks and balances between and within different levels of government. It is hoped that the ongoing reforms will achieve their goals in due course, enabling the rural population to share the fruits of Mainland China’s economic success. 譯 文 在意識到城鄉的經濟不平等以后,最近幾年大陸當局把強調建設社會主義新農村作為維持經濟增長和促進社會和諧的關鍵因素。在某些政策領域,如稅收,農村金融,醫療和教育廣泛的改革已經開始進行,以提高居民的可支配收入,促進資源的有效配置,同時提高農村地區的糧食供應水平。 盡管改革結構性的問題需要花費一定的時間,有跡象表明,今年來農村居民的生活水平有了顯著的提高。最值得注意的是,農村收入增長速度加快,趕上城市居民收入,城鄉收入差距趨向于穩定,貧困的減少也取得了快速的進展。正在進行的政策工作預期將對增強農村地區中長期的生產能力和提高農村居民福利方面顯示出更加充分的影響力。 農村金融 農村地區金融體系的特點是長期以來農民和鄉村企業缺乏資金來源。高信息采集成本和小額貸款規模使得農村金融機構對農業部門的信貸業務無利可圖。同時,對于貸款企業來說,貸款給個體農民,他們的清償能力往往在日益競爭的市場因為有限的定價能力而受損,那么這種貸款從貸款人的角度來說代表了一種風險資產類別。因此,農村金融機構有強烈的愿望來利用農村的存款放貸給城市居民來增加他們的收入。正規金融機構信用的缺失,迫使農民向他們的親戚朋友甚至是高利貸求助資金。這些分正規的資金來源估計能夠滿足農村多于70的借款需求。為了解決這些問題,中央政府采取措施重建農村金融機構,包括農村信用合作社(RCCs),中國郵政儲蓄銀行(CPSB)和中國農業發展銀行ADBC。這樣做的目的是把他們變成為以競爭性和商業性為導向的機構,為農村居民和企業提供廣泛的金融服務,同時也提高農村地區金融中介機構的運轉效率。(表格1) 農村金融機構包括正規金融機構和非正規金融機構,正規農村金融機構包括中國農業銀行,農村信用合作社,中國農業發展銀行,中國郵政儲蓄銀行,還包括其他的如農村商業銀行,農村合作銀行,其他商業銀行的分支機構。非正規金融機構包括由自然人,企業法人,非政府機構法人創立的宏觀金融機構。 農村信用合作社是目前在中國為農村居民提供信貸業務的最重要的金融機構。在2006年末,它持有91的農業貸款中的大約12的農業存款和賬戶。然而,農村信用合作社的特點具有官僚主義,操作過程成本很高,因為它的日常操作受制于地區領導人的重要影響力,也受制于中國銀行業監督管理委員會。由于這個原因,一個試點改革項目在2003年啟動了,來把農村合作社的監管責任轉移到省級或者是鄉級政府,它的最終目的是把鄉鎮級別的農村信用合作社轉變成為更以商業化為導向的金融機構,如農村商業銀行和農村合作銀行。這個試點項目的一個重要組成部分是中國人民銀行用特別銀行匯票直接購買大量的農村信用合作社的壞賬來強化農村信用合作社的貸款能力。當農村信用合作社的資本充足率和監管改善時,這些匯票會由中國人民銀行贖回。另一個重大的改革來改善農村地區金融基礎設施的是在2007年3月把郵政儲蓄銀行及匯兌管理局PSRB)轉變為CPSB,它暗示了大量的郵政儲蓄基金將會提供給農村地區。以前,匯兌管理局從事存款及匯兌服務而不提供郵政貸款。龐大的分支網絡,以及龐大的客戶和存款基礎,使新成立的CPSB成為在中國的第五大銀行。銀行必須把注意力集中在零售和中介銀行部門,尤其是對農村家庭和公司提供基本的金融服務。它的建立因此標志著中國農村金融改革的一大進步,大大提高了供應農村人口農村金融信貸。同樣地,中國農業銀行ABC,從資產來說是中國第二大銀行,將很可能成為未來農村金融重要的一員在接受其他三大國有全國性商業銀行必要的融資體制改革已經完成以后。中小企業融資問題已被中央政府所認識并作為在中國大陸重點發展的問題,在農村地區這是特別重要的。這ADBC創建于一九九四年,積極參加融資基礎設施而且有助于中國農村地區的城鎮化水平。近年來ADBC的一個關鍵的措施是改善中小企業融資。值得一提的是,在2005年該ADBC設立一個新的部門提供技術協助對那些對中小企業融資感興趣的商業銀行信貸。在與國際組織例如世界銀行)的合作中,ADBC建立了在小型貸款方面最好的國際慣例,從而更好地在中國大陸發展類似專業。ADBC于2006年初和在包頭和臺州的城市商業銀行推出了一個試用項目,目的是在2008年在中國各省市參與的分支網絡中推出這一業務。 近年來農村收入水平的快速增長反映了農村居民生活水平的改善,在2001年到2006年農村人均收入在實際條件下平均上升6.6和在2005年和2006年注冊更高的增長超過8,。這體現了在2000年的減速上升了2.1的一個顯著的復蘇。雖然城市收入仍然超過農村收入,從2004年開始農民收入增加具有了更有可比性增長率,明顯縮減了與城市的收入的差距,使得差距從前五年的平均5.4個百分點下為2004-2006年的平均僅1.2個百分點。結果,城市鄉村收入比率在最近幾年趨于穩定,從2002年起保持略超3的水平,雖然仍然比1986年的最低水平2.3高。 圖表5 農村收入增長趕超城市收入 圖表6 近幾年穩定的城市鄉村收入缺口 在農村的產量和收入提供最優惠的發展,加上快速的城市化進程,會導致一個顯著貧困的減少自從中國大陸的1978年經濟改革第7和第8圖表。由政府規定的農村居民生活在貧困線以下的數量已大幅減少,從1978年,2.5億人口,占總人口的30.7,到2005年的240萬占總人口的2.5。 中央政府已清楚地表明他的決心來解決農村人口的民生問題,通過多次重申并承諾解決“三農”問題的三農問題,并以具體的政策措施作為支持。這種改革的制定是為了解決這個關鍵問題,滿足不同農村居民的需求。一些主要的改革的實施精心策劃和精心安排的,廢除各種費用,免除農業稅費和穩健的政府的財政狀況。農村人口作為一個整體而言,就社會不充分的供給而言,他們的那種被剝奪基本權利的待遇,如基本醫療和免費教育預計正逐漸被修正通過在較長時期內在這些地區增加開支。此外,保障農村居民的權利也受到了關注,這可以從進城務工人員的權利保護得到加強中同樣重要的是,中國的改革農村金融有望提高農村居民的融資渠道設施,從而促成農村資源的更有效的配置。所有這些改革將有助于緩解農村貧困、提高農村居民生活水平和建立更為公平的、構建社會主義和諧社會。盡管現在評價新農村政策的全面影響還為時過早,但已有積極的結果了。實際農村人均收入自2000年起一直呈上升的趨勢。農民收入來源已經變得更多樣化,降低了農村人口對農業活動的依賴。農業稅費的廢除為農村居民增加了5的收入,另外學費的減免也增加了農村居民的額外收入。在較富裕的城市,農民工現在可以享受與本地居民同樣的社會福利,這是前所未有的。隨著中國大陸的經濟繼續在過去的幾年里注冊的強勁地增長,中央政府正處在一個不錯的位置上加大以上討論的改革和在這些領域推行這些改革。討論的主要政策領域包括更好的保護是失地農民的所有權,以及提高地方財務的公開度,強化不同層次的政府監督和制衡作用。通過正在進行的改革在適當的方式將達到他們的目標,使農村人口分享中國大陸的經濟成就的成果。

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