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外文资料翻译----中小企业融资难相关问题分析-其他专业.doc

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外文资料翻译----中小企业融资难相关问题分析-其他专业.doc

本 科 生 毕 业 论 文 中小企业融资难相关问题分析 一、中小企业融资难现状 自改革开放30 年以来,中小企业在我国得到了非常迅猛的发展,据数据统计在企业中有 99%的中小企业对我们国?#19994;腉DP ?#27605;?#36229;过了60%,税收超过了50%,提供了70%的进出口贸易和80%的城镇就业岗位。中小企业在我国的自主创新中扮演了一个很重要的角色,其中有66%的发明专利,82%新产品的开发都来自于中小企业,中小企业已经成为繁荣经济、扩大就业、调整结构、推动创新和形成新的产业的重要的力量。 从0 8 年金融危机爆发之后, 我国实施了一系列的包裹积极的财政政策和宽松的货币政策, 但很大一部分中小企业到如今都没有从这些政策当中直?#37038;?#30410;,?#28909;?8 年全国新增加的小型企业贷款数额只有225 亿,比起上年来仅仅只增长了1.4%,相比之下全国的贷款却是增加了14.9%,09 年第一个季度全国的信贷总量增加了4 .8万亿,其中给中小企业贷款增加的额度占的比例比较小,只有不到5%。目前企业融资困难、贷款困难已成为制约中小企业发展的重要因素, 中小企业生产经营面临着严峻困难,据统计到08年底,很多中小企业中歇业停产或者?#36129;?#30340;大约占7 .5%,城镇就业更加困难,这个状况不仅影响我国经济的?#27492;眨?#32780;且直接影响保增长、保民生、保稳定的发展目标。从这个意义上说,国际金融危机冲击下的我国经济能否真正的走出低谷,关键是广大中小企业的活力能否得到完全恢复。 二、中小企业融资难原因分析 中小企业融资难、贷款难应该说也是一个世界性的难题,从我国看,既有体制机制问题,也有中小企业自身的问题,主要有三个方面的原因第一个,中小企业自身的问题, 中小企业一般规模小,实力弱,它的信誉不是太高。中小企业普遍?#38386;?#24847;识薄弱,类似的一家企业几套报表的现象屡见不鲜,可能在税务这边报表难看一些, 少交点税,在银行这边可能表好看一些,多贷点款,这样信息是否真实可靠?#32479;?#20102;问题。而这种做法对企业反而是很不利的,对中小企业的发展是不健康的,我们试想一下,如果几个部门把这些表全拿在一起,那首先这个企业是不?#38386;?#30340;,他就没有立足之地了。我们的制造型和外向型中小企业在人才、技术、资金、市场环境等方面面对着金融危机,存在着巨大的发展压力,它的根本原因是企业的科技含量不够高,创新的能力比较弱,进入市场的门槛比?#31995;停?#24066;场竞争的激烈也增加, 这些都不利于中小企业的发展壮大。第二个,从银行方面来看,对于中小企业的贷款条件更加严格,因为我们的银行大部分是商业银行,它?#37096;?#34385;自身的风险,自身的利润。到2008 年末,小企业不?#21363;?#27454;率是11.6,高于整个银行业七八个百分点, 像国有的大企业,一旦出了问题,国?#19968;?#20250;来并购重组,解决一些贷款难的问题,但是这些中小型的企业,特别小企业,一旦产生问题破产的话,就没人管,所以银行的贷款质量就没有办法得到保证,因此在这样的经营体制下,银行为?#26723;?#39118;险,必然会要求中小企业在提供了足够的抵押物后才敢放款。另外银行从运营成本考虑,做中小企业贷款将付出更多的人力物力,因此也不愿意向中小企业发放贷款。一个银行经营的成本,有一半左右是劳动力成本,做中小企业特别是做小企业的劳动力成本非常高,无论是五百万还是五千万,是五个亿还是五十个亿的一笔贷款,它的工作量是相同的,但是它所产生的效益是成百倍的不同。第三个,中小企业融资渠道太窄,中小企业在资本市场?#29616;?#25509;融资的途径有证券市场、包括中小板和创业板?#25442;?#26377;私募股权基金、产业投资基金、创业投资基金、风险投资基金,以及债券市场等?#21462;?#32780;?#28304;?008 年9 月25 日,中小板市场华昌化工发行之后,证监会便关闭了IPO 大门, 近日才重启新股发?#23567;?#32780;创业板也是“十年磨一剑?#20445;?#21040;现在才呼之欲出。尽管符合创业板上市条件的中小企业不少,但真正能够上市融资,对于很多企业来说,仍然是一种奢望。在海外,中小企业成长过程中的融资不仅仅依靠银行的贷款,很多时候是获得风险投资或者创投的帮助,?#27426;?#25105;国的中小企业在成长中,基本无法获得这样的融资。深圳拥有3000 家创投公司,注册资金达6000 亿,但没有公司愿意投资给创业初期的企业。这些公司更多的时候只是看中比较成熟、能上创业板和证券市场的企业。 三、中小企业融资难解决之道 一 从政府角度而言 1、政府应该放松管制,?#26723;?#24066;场准入壁垒,让更多的小银行,以服务中小企业为战略定位的那些小银行能够蓬蓬勃勃的发展起来。现在我国有大概一百多家村镇银行,村镇银行的成立对改善县经?#29467;?#36164;的瓶?#20445;?#21253;括改善中小企业和支持三农发展将会起到非常重要的作用。对现有五大国有银行, 应鼓励其大力发展自己有利于小企业融资的专门机构,放松其下设分支机构的审批环节,鼓励它们在地、县,甚?#26009;紓?#26469;提供更接近、更方便的金融服务。 2 、政府应该帮助银行建立一个信用体系,进一步?#26723;?#20182;们的信息成本,在我国,央行从1998 年起就开?#35745;?#21160;了企业征信体?#21040;?#35774;,由专门机?#20849;?#38598;、保存、整理、分析、使用企业的信用信息,以防范信用风险,保持金融市场稳定。2006 年开始,央行又着手建立中小企业信用体系,希望把征信体系覆盖到那些和金融机构没有信贷关系的中小企业。当然,信用体系也不是只?#31354;?#24220;,现在有一些网络公司,?#28909;?#38463;里巴巴在尝试?#29467;?#19978;交易的信息变成中小企业的信用指标,这个信用指标如果出来了以后,可以进一步?#26723;?#38134;行的信息成本。 3 、政府应该多方面的对银行进行风险补偿, 目?#26696;?#22320;出台的利益补偿机制和风险补偿基金政策,仅仅是解决中小企业融资难的一种办法,并不能从根本上解决。例如到去年末为止,福建省小企业贷款的不?#21363;?#27454;率是6.71,而整个银行业,平均的水平是百分之二点一几, 而风险补偿金,只是给0.8 个百分点, 只解决一小部分。因此需要多方面的对银行进行风险补偿。例如凡是给中小企业贷款的,那么就根据银行的贷款量,减少它的税收,减少营业税、所得税; 国家可以帮助企业贴息,提高银行风险收益; 如果贷款形成损失,政府用风险补偿基金把它补起来,这就使大企业的贷款和中小企业的贷款能够达到比较收益率是基本平衡的。 4 、政府应该积极推进多层次资本市场体?#21040;?#35774;, 以更好的满足包括中小企业在内的各类企业的融资需求。中小企业类型不一,所处的发展阶段不尽相同,决定了中小企业的融资需求也不一样。因此中小企业群体的差异化决定了企业融资需求的多元化,那么满足中小企业融资需求也需要?#38382;?#22810;样的资金提供方式,?#28909;?#38134;行贷款、债券融资、股权融资等?#21462;?#25105;国2 0 0 4 年深圳交易所创立中小板,通过推动资本、科技、管理等要素有效的结合,中小板既培育了一批优质企业,也为促进产业结构的升级发挥了积极的作用。 09 年10 月,创业板正式启动。创办板推出将为自主创新的企业提供有效的监管机制,推动一批中小企业迈上新的发展台阶。但对于更多中小企业而言还达不到上市的条件,解决这类企业股权融资、股份流转需要一个有效的场外市场。在2006 年开始,我国启动了非上市股份公司进入证券公司挂牌交易的试点工作。此外政府应大力推动债券市场的发展,为中小企业债券融资提供更多的便利,在发达市场国家,债券融资是企业主要的融资方式,以美国为例,2008 年,美国的公司债券发行额是同期股票发行额的5倍,与美国、?#20998;?#31561;国家和地区相比,我国债券市场还有很大拓展的空间。 二 从银行角度而言 如果依靠我国银行业的现有金融产品和对中小企业贷款的相关规定,要想解决中小企业融资难问题是不可能的,我们改变不了中小企业的现状,那么我们就改变我们银行的信贷方式,金融创新迫在眉睫。目前银行业正在通过组织架构创新,风?#23637;?#29702;技术创新,担保抵押创新,和产品创新等多种途径改变中小企业融资难的现状。 1、担保抵押创新。抵押品不足是中小企业最大软肋, 他们不可能买一堆房子然后准备做担保,这是不现实的,对于高新企业而言核心的资产应该是他们的知识产权, 专利权和一个在技术、在市场上创新的团队,是最重要的资产,可以使他们每年高速增长,但是资金就像血液一样支撑其发展,这几块都需要资金,而抵押物不足,银行不给放贷。目前全国很多省份的中小银行都开展了面向中小企业的金融创新实验,如江苏农信社广?#21644;?#24191;仓单质押,通过库存产品作为抵押取得贷款;天津滨海农村商业银行积极开展企业股权质押贷款; ?#26412;?#38134;行新近推出知识产权作为质押从银行获得贷款。 2、信用评级创新。大银行做业务的时候,通常看资产负债表、损益表、现金流量表,中小企业有的连这三表都没有,银行信息成本很高,导致惜贷, 浙江泰隆商业银行进行创新, 他们就?#27492;?#34920;、电表、海关报关表,大量?#26723;统?#26412;,使得小额贷款还能够有钱可赚。又如深圳发展银行, 他们通过关注企业交易对手的信用,关注企业的真实性, 选择了一?#20013;?#30340;对企业的信用评级方式。在对企业的信用评级方法里边,对企业自身的信用评?#24230;?#37325;只有15%,更加关注交易对手和交易的真实性。大部分企业都是在贸易链中,在供应链中生存的,它一定有上游的原材料供应和下游的产品或者是半成品的服务或者是运输或者是物流的管理,那么在这个过程当都能够检索到企业的信用记录,用这些东西就可以比较容易?#38590;?#25321;到好的重信用的有真?#24471;?#26131;背景的这些企业,向其提供足够好的服务,调动各种各样的金融工具,在企业发展的过程中,深发展也创造了利润。 3、业务流程创新。我国商业银行大都是官办的银行,习惯在房子里坐等客户,一笔贷款要审批一个月、三个月,这样一种管理、这样一种审批效果是不可能适应中小企业金融服务,也不可能来改善中小企业的融资困难。银行一方面要?#26723;?#38376;槛,另一方面必须简化程序、减少环节,建立高效的审批机制, 这样才能适应小企业对信贷资金短、?#20581;?#24555;的要求。中国银行?#33041;?#24213;推出了信贷工厂。就是把银行当作工厂,中小企业是原材料,进入流水线后经过营销、销售、业务申报、审批、支用、客户维护和贷后管理,获得贷款。而银行也不是一个人从头到尾完成所有环节,而是派出7组工人,每?#31246;?#20303;流水线上的一个环节,批量生产。通过这样的方式简化审批的流程。通过这种流程?#25165;?#20351;其对于中小企业信贷审批的周期从过去2、3 个月,缩短到现在的3、5 天。 4、加强人员培训。在机制建设以后就要有一批人能够做这件事情,而且把它做得很好,这就要加强员工的培?#25285;?#36827;一步加强对中小企业、微小企业贷款以及高新技术的中小企业的贷款工作的培训和交流的力度,加大整个产品应变研发的力度,用新的激励约束的办法来培养一支专业的?#28216;?#21644;新的服务文化。 三 从企业角度而言 1、企业应加强管理、提高素质。要正确认识当前?#38382;疲?#27491;视风险,树立靠管理求效益、谋发展的观念, 要更?#24188;?#37325;技术改造、科技创新,注重新产品研发、质量改进和?#25918;?#24314;设,?#27426;?#25299;展新产品,提高产品附加?#25285;?#20197;内在质量的提高,赢得市场。努力节能降耗、降本增效、增收节支。加大市场开拓能力,?#26723;汀?#20135;成品、应收账款”两项资金占用,加快资金周转。通过转变发展方式,不是单靠产量的扩张,而是靠质的提高实现工业增加值的较快增长。 2、企业应加强?#38386;?#20307;?#21040;?#35774;,建立规范透明的管理制度,建立真实可信的财务报表,积累企业的信用制度。 综上所述, 中小企业的融资是一个全球性的难题,也是一项系统工程,需要各方的共同努力,也更需要中小企业自身的管理进?#21073;?#36825;件事情不管它的前进道路上有多大的困难,只要我们大家共同努力,为破解中小企业的融资难题?#27605;?#33258;己的智慧和力量,转变观念,进行大胆创新,?#19994;?#35299;决中小企业融资难的正确途径, 那么在这一条道路上面我们就会越走越宽广,我们的前景也会越来越美好。 Sme financing problems related to the analysis First, small and medium-sized enterprise financing status Reform and opening up, China for 30 years of small and medium-sized enterprises obtained a rapid development of enterprise, 99 of the small and medium-sized enterprises of our country more than 60 GDP contribution, tax over 50, provides 70 of import and export trade and 80 of urban jobs. Small and medium-sized enterprises in our country is also an important power of independent innovation, 66 of invention patent, 82 of new product development of small and medium-sized enterprises, from small and medium-sized enterprises has become the economic prosperity, expanding employment, adjusting structure, promote innovation and new industries of important strength. From 80 years since the outbreak of the international financial crisis, the implementation of the positive fiscal policy and looser monetary policy, but no small and medium-sized enterprises from the proactive fiscal policy and moderate looser monetary policy benefit directly, for instance, of the new 2008 225 million small loan only, more than the previous year, but rose 1.4 only the loans increased 14.9, 09 year three months of national total credit increased 4 8 trillion, including loans to small and medium-sized enterprises increased amount only less than 5. Current, loan financing difficult has become the bottleneck of restricting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprise production and management faced difficulties, according to the state statistical bureau of statistics and letter until the end of 2008 in the small and medium-sized enterprises of production or collapse closed accounts for about 7. 5, the urban employment, this situation is not only more difficult economic recovery, influence and directly affect the growth and development of peoples livelihood, stable target. In this sense, the international financial crisis under the impact of Chinas economy could not really low, the key is out of small and medium-sized enterprises vitality can be fully recovered. Second, the sme financing reason analysis Sme loans and financing is a cosmopolitan should say, see, both from China, and mechanism of medium and small-sized enterprises, there are three main reasons first, the medium and small-sized enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises generally small, weak strength, its not too much credit. Small and medium-sized enterprises generally weak awareness of honesty, similar to a few of the common phenomenon, may report on tax on some, less ugly statements in Banks, this intersection, some may form good-looking, such loans point is reliable became a problem. But this approach is very adverse instead of enterprises, the development of small and medium-sized enterprises are not healthy, we imagine, if several departments with all these together, the first this enterprise is not sincere, he will have a foothold. We manufacture and export-oriented smes in human resources, technology, capital, market environment faced financial crisis, there was a huge pressure, the development of it is the root cause of the scientific and technological content of the enterprise, the innovation ability of high enough to enter the market is weak, the low threshold, the fierce competition in the market will increase, these are not good for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Second, from the bank, for small and medium-sized enterprise credit conditions stricter, because we are most Banks, it is also considered commercial bank, the risk of their own profits. To the end of 2008, the small bad loans is higher than that of the entire banking industry relies low percentage of state-owned enterprises, like a big problem, once, countries will still come ma, solving some problems, but the loans of the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially those small problems, once the bankruptcy, nobody tube, so the bank loan quality cannot guaranteed, so in this management system, to reduce the risks, the bank will demand of small and medium-sized enterprises in providing enough after pawn dare loan. Another bank from the operation cost of small and medium-sized enterprises, do loans will pay more manpower, so also does not want to extend loans to small and medium-sized enterprises. A bank operating costs, the half is labor cost, small and medium-sized enterprises especially do small, very high labor costs, is five million or 50m or fifty billion billion a loan, it is the same as the workload, but it is the benefit of different times. Third, the sme financing channel is too narrow and small and medium-sized enterprises in the capital markets have direct financing ways of securities market, including small plate and gem, And private equity funds, industrial investment funds, venture investment funds, risk investment funds, and the bond market, etc. But since the sept. 25, 2008, the small plate market, securities issued after huachang chemical and closed the door, just recently IPO to restart the IPO. But gem is ten years, good sword.people until now only be vividly portrayed. Although with gem listing conditions, but a lot of small and medium-sized enterprises to financing, for many enterprises, it is still a luxury. In overseas, small and medium-sized enterprises in the process of growing only rely on bank loan financing, many times is a venture investment risk or the help of small and medium-sized enterprises in China, however, can grow in the basic of financing. Shenzhen has 3,000 venture company, with a registered capital of 6,000 billion, but no company is willing to startup investment enterprise. The company is more mature, can the fancy of the securities market and gem. Third, the sme financing difficulty in solving the problem a from the Angle of the government 1, the government should relax market access control, reducing barriers, let more smaller Banks, small and medium-sized enterprises in service for the strategic positioning of those small Banks to bitter fleabane bitter fleabane. Dynamic development Now China is probably more than a hundred villages and towns of the bank, bank established to improve the bottleneck of the economic investment county, including improving agriculture development of small and medium-sized enterprises and support will play a very important role. For existing five state-owned Banks, should be encouraged to develop their own businesses for the financing of the specialized agencies, relax its has branches and encourage them in the land, and county, township, even closer to provide financial services and more convenient. 2, the government should help Banks to establish a credit system, further reducing their information cost, in our country, the central bank since 1998 enterprise credit system construction was started by the specialized agencies, collection and storage, sorting, analysis, and use of enterprise credit information, to guard against credit risks, maintain stable financial markets. In 2006, the central bank and small and medium-sized enterprise credit system to establish the credit system, hope to cover those and financial institutions have no credit relations of small and medium-sized enterprises. Of course, the credit system is not only by the government, and now have some network company, for example, try to use alibaba.com in online transaction information into small and medium-sized enterprise credit index, the index of credit, if out of the bank to further reduce the cost of information. 3, the government should various of bank risk compensation, the local interest risk compensation mechanism and policy, just compensation fund is to solve the sme financing way, and cannot be fundamentally solved. As to the end, fujian province of bad loans is small loans 6.71, but the average level of banking, is a two percent, while a few risk compensation, just to 0.8 percent, only a small part. So many of bank risk compensation. As all of the loans to small and medium-sized enterprises, then according to the bank loans, reduce its tax, business tax, income tax reduction, Countries can help enterprises to improve bank interest, risk and return, If the loan losses, the government formed by risk compensation fund to patch up it, this makes big business loans and small and medium-sized enterprise loan to achieve the balance is the basic yields. 4, the government should actively promote the multi-level capital market system, in order to better satisfy all kinds of small and medium-sized enterprises include the financing needs of enterprise. Different types of small and medium-sized enterprises, the development stage is endless and same, determines the sme financing needs is not the same. So small and medium-sized enterprise groups of differentiation determines the diversified financing needs, then satisfy sme financing demand also needs the various forms of financing mode, such as bank loans, bonds, equity financing, etc. 2 0 0 to 4 years in shenzhen stock exchange medium plate, founded by promoting capital, technology, management, and the effective factors of high quality as cultivating board, also to promote the upgrading of industrial structure is playing a positive role. In October 2009, gem officially launched. Founded board will provide for independent innovation, promoting effective supervision mechanism of small and medium-sized enterprises in the new development stage. But for more than for small and medium-sized enterprises are listed to solve this kind of condition, enterprises equity financing, stock transfer to a valid the over-the-counter market. In 2006, China launched fei joint-stock company listing for trading of securities companies entering the pilot work. Besides the government should vigorously promote the development of the bond market, bond financing for small and medium enterprises to provide more convenient, in the developed countries, the bond market is the main financing, financing, in the United States, for example, 2008, the company bonds is circulation stock circulation of

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