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外文翻译-机床实践-其他专业.doc

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外文翻译-机床实践-其他专业.doc

附录2 外文翻译(外文部分) ADVANCED MACHINING PROCESSES As the hardware of an advanced technology becomes more complex, new and visionary approaches to the processing of materials into useful products come into common use. This has been the trend in machining processes in recent years.. Advanced methods of machine control as well as completely different methods of shaping materials have permitted the mechanical designer to proceed in directions that would have been totally impossible only a few years ago. Parallel development in other technologies such as electronics and computers have made available to the machine tool designer methods and processes that can permit a machine tool to far exceed the capabilities of the most experienced machinist. In this section we will look at CNC machining using chip-making cutting tools. CNC controllers are used to drive and control a great variety of machines and mechanisms, Some examples would be routers in wood working; lasers, plasma-arc, flame cutting, and waterjets for cutting of steel plate; and controlling of robots in manufacturing and assembly. This section is only an overview and cannot take the place of a programming manual for a specific machine tool. Because of the tremendous growth in numbers and capability of computers ,changes in machine controls are rapidly and constantly taking place. The exciting part of this evolution in machine controls is that programming becomeseasier with each new advanced in this technology. Advantages of Numerical Control A manually operated machine tool may have the same physical characteristics as a CNC machine, such as size and horsepower. The principles of metal removal are the same. The big gain comes from the computer controlling the machining axes movements. CNC-controlled machine tools can be as simple as a 2-axis drilling machining center Figure O-1. With a dual spindle machining center, the low RPM, high horsepower spindle gives high metal removal rates. The high RPM spindle allows the efficient use of high cutting speed tools such as diamonds and small diameter cutters Figure O-2. The cutting tools that remove materials are standard tools such as milling cutters, drills, boring tools, or lathe tools depending on the type of machine used. Cutting speeds and feeds need to be correct as in any other machining operation. The greatest advantage in CNC machining comes from the unerring and rapid positioning movements possible. A CNC machine does dot stop at the end of a cut to plan its next move; it does not get fatigued; it is capable of uninterrupted machining error free, hour after hour. A machine tool is productive only while it is making chips. Since the chip-making process is controlled by the proper feeds and speeds, time savings can be achieved by faster rapid feed rates. Rapid feeds have increased from 60 to 200 to 400 and are now often approaching 1000 inches per minute IPM. These high feed rates can pose a safety hazard to anyone within the working envelope of the machine tool. Complex contoured shapes were extremely difficult to product prior to CNC machining .CNC has made the machining of these shapes economically feasible. Design changes on a part are relatively easy to make by changing the program that directs the machine tool. A CNC machine produces parts with high dimensional accuracy and close tolerances without taking extra time or special precautions, CNC machines generally need less complex work-holding fixtures, which saves time by getting the parts machined sooner. Once a program is ready and production parts, each part will take exactly the same amount of time as the previous one. This repeatability allows for a very precise control of production costs. Another advantage of CNC machining is the elimination of large inventories; parts can be machined as needs .In conventional production often a great number of parts must be made at the same time to be cost effective. With CNC even one piece can be machined economically .In many instances, a CNC machine can perform in one setup the same operations that would require several conventional machines. With modern CNC machine tools a trained machinist can program and product even a single part economically .CNC machine tools are used in small and large machining facilities and range in size from tabletop models to huge machining centers. In a facility with many CNC tools, programming is usually done by CNC programmers away from the CNC tools. The machine control unit MCU on the machine is then used mostly for small program changes or corrections. Manufacturing with CNC tools usually requires three categories of persons. The first is the programmer, who is responsible for developing machine-ready code. The next person involved is the setup person, who loads the raw stork into the MCU, checks that the correct tools are loaded, and makes the first part. The third person is the machine and unloads the finished parts. In a small company, one person is expected to perform all three of these tasks. CNC controls are generally divided into two basic categories. One uses a ward address format with coded inputs such as G and M codes. The other users a conversational input; conversational input is also called user-friendly or prompted input. Later in this section examples of each of these programming formats in machining applications will be describes. CAM and CNC CAM systems have changed the job of the CNC programmer from one manually producing CNC code to one maximizing the output of CNC machines. Since CNC machine tools are made by a great number of manufacturers, many different CNC control units are in use. Control units from different manufacturers use a variety of program formats and codes. Many CNC code words are identical for different controllers, but a great number vary from one to another. To produce an identical part on CNC machine tools with different controllers such as one by FANCU, OKUMA or DYNAPATH, would require completely different CNC codes. Each manufacturer is constantly improving and updating its CNC controllers. These improvements often include additional code words plus changes in how the existing code works. A CAM systems allows the CNC programmer to concentrate on the creation of an efficient machining process, rather then relearning changed code formats. A CNC programmer looks at the print of a part and then plans the sequence of machining operations necessary to make it Figure O-3. This plan includes everything, from the selection of possible CNC machine tools, to which tooling to use, to how the part is held while machining takes place. The CNC programmer has to have a thorough understanding of all the capacities and limitations of the CNC machine tools that a program is to be made for. Machine specifications such as horsepower, maximum spindle speeds, workpiece weight and size limitations, and tool changer capacity are just some of the considerations that affect programming. Another area of major importance to the programmer is the knowledge of machining processes. An example would be the selection of the surface finish requirement specified in the part print. The sequence of machining processes is critical to obtain acceptable results. Cutting tool limitations have to be considered and this requires knowledge of cutting tool materials, tool types, and application recommendations. A good programmer will spend a considerable amount of time in researching the rapidly growing volume of new and improved tools and tool materials. Often the tool that was on the cutting edge of technology just two years ago is now obsolete. Information on new tools can come from catalogs or tool manufacturers tooling engineers. Help in tool selection or optimum tool working conditions can also be obtained from tool manufacturer software. Examples would be Kennametals TOOLPRO, software designed to help select the best tool grade, speed, and feed rates for different work materials in turning application. Another very important feature of TOOLPRO is the display of the horsepower requirement for each machining selection. This allow the programmer to select a combination of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut that equals the machines maximum horsepower for roughing cuts. For a finishing cut, the smallest diameter of the part being machined is selected and then the cutting speed varied until the RPM is equal to the maximum RPM of the machine. This helps in maximizing machining efficiency. Knowing the horsepower requirement for a cut is critical if more than one tool is cutting at the same time. Software for a machining center application would be Ingersoll Tool Companys Actual Chip Thickness, a program used to calculate the chip thickness in relation to feed-per-tooth for a milling cutter, especially during a shallow finishing cut. Ingersolls Rigidity Analysis software ealculates tool deflection for end mills as a function of tool stiffness and tool force. To this point we looked at some general qualifications that a programmer should possess. Now we examine how a CAM system works. Point Control Companys SmartCam system uses the following approach. First, the programmer makes a mental model of the part to be machined. This includes the kind of machining to be performed-turning or milling. Then the part print is studied to develop a machining sequence, roughing and finishing cuts, drilling, tapping, and boring operations. What work-holding device is to be used, a vise or fixture or clamps After these considerations, computer input can be started. First comes the creation of a JOBPLAN. This JOBPLAN consists of entries such as inch or metric units, machine type, part ID, type of workpiece material, setup notes, and a description of the required tools. This line of information describes the tool by number, type, and size and includes the appropriate cutting speed and feed rate. After all the selected tools are entered, the file is saved. The second programming step is the making of the part. This represents a graphic modeling of the projected machining operation. After selecting a tool from the prepared JOBPLAN, parameters for the cutting operation are entered. For a drill, once the coordinate location of the hole and the depth are given, a circle appears on that spot. If the location is incorrect, the UNDO command erases this entry and allows you to give new values for this operation. When an end mill is being used, cutting movements toolpath are usually defined as lines and arcs. As a line is programmed, the toolpath is graphically displayed and errors can be corrected instantly. At any time during programming, the command SHOWPATH will show the actual toolpath for each of the programmed tools. The tools will be displayed in the sequence in which they will be used during actual machining. If the sequence of a tool movement needs to be changed, a few keystrokes will to that. Sometimes in CAM the programming sequence is different from the actual machining order. An example would be the machining of a pocket in a part. With CAM, the finished pocket outline is programmed first, then this outline is used to define the roughing cuts to machine the pocket. The roughing cuts are computer generated from inputs such as depth and width of cut and how much material to leave for the finish cut. Different roughing patterns can be tried out to allow the programmer to select the most efllcient one for the actual machining cuts. Since each tool is represented by a different color, it is easy to observe the toolpath made by each one. A CAM system lets the programmer view the graphics model from varying angles, such as a top, front, side, or isometric view. A toolpath that looks correct from a top view, may show from a front view that the depth of the cutting tool is incorrect. Changes can easily be made and seen immediately. When the toolpath and the sequence of operations are satisfactory, machine ready code has to be made. This is as easy as specifying the CNC machine that is to be used to machine the part. The code generator for that specific CNC machine during processing accesses four different files. The JOBPLAN file for the tool information and the GRAPHICE file for the toolpath and cutting sequence. It also uses the MACHINE DEFINE file which defines the CNC code words for that specific machine. This file also supplies data for maximum feed rates, RPM, toolchange times, and so on. The fourth file taking part in the code generating process is the TEMPLATE file. This file acts like a ruler that produces the CNC code with all of its parts in the right place and sequence. When the code generation is complete, a projected machining time is displayed. This time is calculated from values such as feed rates and distances traveled, noncutting movements at maximum feed rates between points, tool change times, and so on. The projected machining time can be revised by changing tooling to allow for higher metal removal rates or creating a more efficient toolpath. This display of total time required can also be used to estimate production costs. If more then one CNC machine tool is available to machine this part, making code and comparing the machining time may show that one machine is more efficient than the others. CAD/CAM Another method of creating toolpath is with the use of a Computer-aided Drafting CAD file. Most machine drawings are created using computers with the description and part geometry stored in the computer database. SmartCAM, though its CAM CONNECTION, will read a CAD file and transfer its geometry represents the part profile, holes, and so on. The programmer still needs to prepare a JOBPLAN with all the necessary tools, but instead of programming a profile line by line, now only a tool has to be assigned to an existing profile. Again, using the SHOWPATH function will display the toolpath for each tool and their sequence. Constant research and developments in CAD/CAM interaction will change how they work with each other. Some CAD and CAM programs, if loaded on the same computer, make it possible to switch between the two with a few keystrokes, designing and programming at the same time. The work area around the machine needs to be kept clean and clear of obstructions to prevent slipping or tripping. Machine surfaces should not be used as worktables. Use proper lifting methods to handle heavy workpieces, fixtures, or heavy cutting tools. Make measurements only when the spindle has come to a complete standstill. Chips should never be handled with bare hands. Before starting the machine make sure that the work-holding device and the workpiece are securely fastened. When changing cutting tools, protect the workpiece being machined from damage, and protect your hands from sharp cutting edges. Use only sharp cutting tools. Check that cut

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