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外文翻譯--設計有效的職工培訓計劃-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯--設計有效的職工培訓計劃-其他專業.doc

中文3665字 本科畢業論文(設計) 外文翻譯 外文題目 Designing effective employee training programmed 外文出處 Training for Quality,2007(5)P52–57 外文作者 Aaron W. Hughey and Kenneth J. Mussnug 原文 Designing effective employee training programmed Aaron W. Hughey and Kenneth J. Mussnug Employee training is far more prevalent today than it was ten years ago. Today, almost all companies provide some type of training for their employees. For some companies, training is a very formal process. Entire departments are devoted to conducting both initial and ongoing employee training programmed. Other companies bring in outside consultants to conduct employee training sessions. The motivation for providing such training varies considerably from organization to organization. A few companies are genuinely committed to enhancing the skills and competences of their workforce. Other companies conduct training primarily to meet required job safety regulations. Sadly, many companies conduct training simply for appearances sake. Regardless of the reasons or level of commitment to the process, the need for employee training has increased significantly in recent years. This increase is directly related to the rapidly expanding use of technology within society in general and business and industry in particular. It has also been precipitated by a renewed emphasis on quality and customer satisfaction, and the non-traditional management philosophies which are driven by those emphases. Moreover, companies are beginning to recognize that learning truly is a lifelong endeavor and developmental activities such as employee training have a profoundly positive impact on job satisfaction, productivity and, ultimately, overall profitability. The fact is that training, when carefully developed and appropriately implemented, can have a desirable impact on the bottom line. The underlying aim of all employee training is to increase efficiency. Other outcomes are really auxiliary and/or incidental. While goals such as facilitating the personal and/or professional development of employees are commendable, they do not constitute the primary impetus for most training efforts. Companies exist to make money. The desire to optimize profitability drives most management decisions. Management consistently views employee training as simply an additional avenue for enhancing the total financial return on investment. Rather than detracting from the importance of employee training programmed, however, this view inherently provides the training manager with the kind of credibility essential to success. Training vs. education The tremendous power associated with learning through involvement has been recognized and accepted for most of the past century. But, when it comes to employee training, especially when limited financial resources are available, many companies seem to favor a more cost-sensitive, but far less effective, approach. They turn to education instead of training. There is a significant difference between employee training and education- particularly within the context of adult learning paradigms. Education typically takes place in a classroom and involves a transfer of knowledge through the use of formal methods such as lectures and directed discussion. Participants learn new and relevant information, but the acquisition of new skills and competences, designed to enhance profitability or quality is usually not the intended outcome; i.e. their ability to actually do something new is often not exploited. In other words, knowing about a skill is not the same as being skilful. Adults learn more efficiently when they are allowed to talk about the subject, relate it to their own experiences, and discover the usefulness of the skills for themselves. But this type of learning is also very time-consuming. Many companies regularly sacrifice long-term gains for short-term convenience and economy. More information can be provided using the lecture format and many training sessions are lecture-based simply because of the time commitment involved. Yet most employees simply do not learn very well when they are talked to. They need to be more actively involved in the learning experience. Training, on the other hand, typically entails personal involvement, commitment, and experiential gains. Training involves learning by doing. Competence, much more than knowledge, constitutes real power. True training occurs when skills that can be measurably defined are enhanced until the competence level is visibly enhanced. Training aims to provide employees with proficiency in the execution of given tasks. The outcomes of training should be tangible, in that they should complement and support the companys financial stability. Think about it. If you needed an operation, would you want a physician performing the procedure who is educated in medical theory or one who is trained in surgical technique Recently, a few training gurus have taken issue with the training model discussed here and have argued that teaching people to think is more important that teaching specific skills. The response of the informed training manager to such criticism is quite elegant. Thinking is a skill just like any other. It is self-evident that, in the future, employees will need better decision-making and problem-solving skills to survive and remain employable. But their need for highly specific skills and competences will only increase with the passing of time. For someone to be functional, they have to be able to do something. A final note about learning by doing. Many training programmed focus on the modification of employee behavior in a direction that is deemed advantageous to both the company and the individual. This may even be the primary purpose of the entire training programmed. Unless these types of training ventures focus on specific skills and competences, however, the odds against them are monumental. The desire to change behavior in a positive direction is, in and of itself, an admirable goal. But for behavior change to be permanent, it must be linked to the acquisition of new competences. When employees learn new skills, their behavior inevitably changes. Behavior change is best realized as a by-product of other forms of training. Soft skills training As alluded to previously, the benefits of a learning-by-doing approach to employee training have been recognized for years. Still, many companies continue to focus on so- called feel good training programmed as opposed to those which target specific, utilizable competences. Such programmed typically involve training in soft skills, i.e. skills such as listening, communication, teamwork, leadership, etc. Although these topics are generally well received, the evidence seems to be that they are the least effective in terms of tangible gains. Most soft skills training is never put into actual practice - i.e. the information covered in these types of training sessions is almost never utilized in concrete, on-the-job situations. For example, a lot of companies today are conducting team training without first defining what the desired outcomes of the training are, or how the teams should be able to function at the conclusion of the training programmed. Team training, especially in its early stages, typically involves various group decision-making exercises that centre on some hypothetical situation such as being lost in the wilderness or desert with minimal resources. Participants have to decide as a group how to establish priorities and proceed collectively. The idea is that employees will be able to see a connection between how they would handle a hypothetical problem and how they should handle similar on-the-job situations. But translating the classroom experience into specific skills that employees actually integrate into their job performance is extremely challenging. While these kinds of structured experiences probably have a place in employee training programmed, they should never be allowed to become a primary emphasis. They sometimes serve a good diversionary or stress-relieving purpose, but they are simply not in the same league with technical training that enhances the how to repertoire of employees. As illustrated by the preceding scenario, training sessions which deal with soft skills topics such as diversity and quality are often quite entertaining but seldom involve the kinds of hands-on experiences that help employees translate awareness into action. Role-playing, games and simulations help to present the ideas in a more palpable context, but they seldom precipitate the acquisition of useful skills. Those who attend such training rarely get a real feel for how to implement what is presented in a realistic context. As such, this type of training routinely amounts to nothing more than a rather expensive waste of everyones time and money. It is important to remember that training should only involve tangible, hands-on skills and observable behaviors. Training goals and objectives should not involve feelings and emotions. To enhance the employees appreciation of quality is not an appropriate training objective. It is difficult to explain what appreciation is, much less how it can be taught within a skills-based context. The purpose of training is to enhance behaviors, not attitudes. Keep training objectives focused on skills and competences - attitudinal changes will occur spontaneously with time. Employee training programmed simply have no cause to delve into the affective domain. The role of the training manager Training manager seems to be a fairly common job title in any company of considerable size. Many smaller companies also have individuals whose key responsibilities entail some form of employee training. Furthermore, most large corporations have a staff of several full-time professionals whose sole function is to assess training needs and institute training programmed based on the companys needs. While the length of time spent managing a training programmed tends to be related to company size and other factors, all training managers share at least one common characteristic. Eventually, they have to demonstrate the effectiveness of their training pursuits and thus justify the need for their position. This is, after all, the age of accountability. Few companies would seriously consider turning over their manufacturing operations to a person with no manufacturing experience. Yet many companies routinely entrust their training initiatives to managers who have little or no background, expertise, or formal education in the area of employee training. Management suddenly recognizes a need for training - or is informed of their need by corporate headquarters - and delegates the responsibility for implementing a training programmed to someone in human resources or a related department. While the selection of an appropriate training manager is indeed a crucial first step, it is only a beginning. Unwavering management support must permeate all phases of the training process. New training managers should make it a point to educate themselves about fundamental training concepts and techniques. Attendance at local or regional training conferences is a must. Consider taking a class or two at a local community college. Classes on teaching methods or establishing goals and objectives for training programmed would be appropriate. It would also be advisable to join relevant associations and other organizations that have employee training as their focus. Reading always helps, as does seeking advice from training managers at other companies. Pay particular attention to what has been successful, and what has not worked so well, at similar companies. Take a little time to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead and to anticipate the inevitable difficulties that will be encountered. Training is a process that can only be mastered through experience and practice. The strategic plan One of the training manager’s primary responsibilities involves the perpetual justification of employee training initiatives. To substantiate the effectiveness of a training programmed in relation to the resources that it requires, several areas must be addressed. It is imperative that the goals of training be in line with the company’s strategic plan. How those goals reinforce the larger mission of the company is also vital to the continued viability of the training programmed. Equally important is the ability to track both individual and collective employee progress to show explicitly how the acquisition of new skills and competences has a positive impact on productivity and quality. Having a comprehensive strategic training plan is absolutely essential. Time and other critical factors Successful employee training programmed demand a significant investment in terms of both financial and human resources. They can also take up a great deal of time which can adversely affect production schedules and deadlines. Management is usually aware of these factors and therefore tends to question the necessity of employee training programmed when revenues are scarce and/or production demands are at a peak. Moreover, some companies decide on training topics based on session titles and/or other arbitrary considerations and predetermined time allotments. These are critical mistakes, but they are characteristic of many companies. Concluding thoughts Finally, a well-designed training programmed has built-in reinforcement. It is not necessary to reinforce learning if the skills and competences emphasized during the training really assist employees in the performance of their job duties and responsibilities; i.e. if the employees are able to actually use what they have learned. External reinforcement only becomes necessary if the skills acquired are not instrumental in enhancing job completion.(節選) 譯文 設計有效的職工培訓計劃 亞倫W.哈格赫,肯尼思J.馬斯納格 和10年前相比,如今對新員工進行完善的入職培訓已十分普遍。現在,幾乎所有的公司都會為新進員工提供一定的培訓。對一些公司來說,入職培訓是非常正式的,所有的部門都要為創造一個初步的、持續的員工培訓方案而努力,也有一些公司會請外部專業人員來進行培訓。每個公司培訓的動機是各不相同的,一些是想真正提升員工的工作技能和其他能力的,而另一些是為了符合工作安全章程的規定。可悲的是,很多公司的培訓制度只是為了裝裝門面而已。 不論培訓的原因是什么,培訓的程度怎么樣,在近幾年,員工對培訓的需求大大增加,它和社會科技的快速發展,尤其是商業和工業的發展直接相關。對產品質量和客戶滿意度的再度重視,以及因此產生的非傳統管理理念也使培訓需求大大增加。而且,公司開始意識到,真正地學習是一項終身努力的事,是不斷發展的,就像職工培訓有利于提高員工的工作滿意度、公司的生產力和最終的全部收益一樣。事實上,只要謹慎發展,合理執行,培訓能影響公司發展的最終結果,使大家可以有一個比較滿意的結果。 員工培訓的基本目的是提高工作效率,其他結果都是輔助的或者是附帶的。當目標達到時,例如促進了員工個人或專業的發展后,大多數的培訓就不再需要特意地去形成第一推動力。公司的存在是為了獲取利益,大多數管理者會根據收益最大化的一面去做決定。管理者都認為為員工提供培訓只是提升整個金融投資回報的一種新方法。這并沒有減弱培訓計劃的重要性,但卻從本質上給予培訓經理一種取得必然成功的信任度。 培訓和教育 在過去的一百年里,人們通過學習參與,已經意識到培訓的重要性并接受了它所產生的巨大能量。但是,當談到員工培訓,尤其是經濟資源有限的時候,許多公司似乎傾向于一種收效較小但成本節約的方法,他們將培訓轉換成了教育。 培訓和教育有著顯著的差別,尤其是以成人學習為例。教育通常發生在教室里,它包括以正式的方法將知識傳授給你,比如講座和直接的討論等。參與者學習新的相關知識,但以增加收益,提高質量為目的的新技術的學習及能力的獲得往往得不到實現,即他們的創造能力往往得不到開發。換句話說,了解一項技能的人和擁有一項

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