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外文資料翻譯---公允價值運用的國內外比較應用分析-其他專業.doc

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外文資料翻譯---公允價值運用的國內外比較應用分析-其他專業.doc

河南理工大學萬方科技學院2012屆本科生畢業論文(設計) 本 科 畢 業 設 計(論文) 題目 論公允價值在我國的運用 附錄 外文資料與中文翻譯 院(系部) 工商管理系 專業名稱 會計學 年級班級 08會計4班 學生姓名 許 欣 指導教師 2012 年 05月 23日 附 錄 外文資料與中文翻譯 外文資料 The application of fair value in the domestic and international comparative analysis 1 the definition of fair value 1.1 fair value definition comparative analysis From the definition of fair value can be seen, different countries, institutions for fair value definition although expressed in different ways, but its connotation basically the same 1 the transaction fairness. Fair value is familiar with the situation between the two sides in the voluntary transactions in form, not in the forced liquidation or formed in the process of. 2 market compatibility. Active market and the active market can form the fair value. Active market in the market is the best evidence of fair value, but not the only evidence. When there is no active market, can be used in a variety of valuation techniques to provide a good estimation of the fair value of the mouth. 3 emphasize the relativity, i.e. exchange to determine the fair value is in relatively reasonable under the circumstances. The fair value is for its essence is a kind of ideal under the assumption that the value embodiment of social reality, and this hypothesis is difficult to fully realize. No matter how perfect transaction market, how wise, not likely to collect all information and effective analysis of information make absolutely correct decision. Fair value is the market value, namely, the fair value of the fair is relative. 4 the comprehensive measurement. Fair value refers not only to the fair value of the assets, including the fair value of the latter over a long period of time had been ignored. 1.2 china fair value definition theoretical defects On the definition of fair value is substantially consistent with international. But this definition was studied, and combined with the fair value of specific access technology, we can find that, the fair value of the definition itself is not with no chink in ones armour, it is certain to have some theoretical defects. First, the definition of fair value in the emphasis on even bargain, but in actual application, fairness is vague and difficult to guarantee the. For example, in a buyers market or sellers market, by the impact of supply and demand, the actual transaction price is very difficult to achieve the true fair. For example, a license plate number or a certain kind of tea, with hundreds of thousands or even millions of prices, completely is traded a willing willing to endure a voluntary exchange price, its hard to say with the original meaning of fair. Again, due to the existence of asymmetric information, the active market for both buyers and sellers to reach transaction prices are not absolutely fair. For example, in the second-hand car market, buy a car to car quality information related to master far less than selling cars, and sell the car man as a rational economic person, want the car can sell a good price and try to exaggerate the car quality. If a car that sells car people, to pay the corresponding price, so buyers interests have been violated; if a car prior to realize this reason, in order not to be cheated will adhere to the low price, sell a car people reluctantly part with cheap shots, so the car is not fair the. Of course, in this game, buy a car and the car can choose to exit the market, finally appear inferior goods expel quality product of the adverse selection results, but in the real economic life, both the information asymmetry phenomenon indeed bow can be found. Fair value definition requires a familiar situation both sides exist in name only, although voluntary transactions, the transaction price fairness is miles away. Secondly, based on the fair value definition emphasizes the transaction and produce, but a lot of the fair value of the acquisition is not derived from trading. But more often to the enterprise resource in a transaction and although the transaction but no observable amount in case, according to the same or similar situation made estimation and evaluation. For example, the fair value not only for the initial measurement, are often used in subsequent measurement, and subsequent measurement are mostly in the absence of trade situation, through for a supply of sth. to reach consensus on the actual transaction price will be out of the question. There is also controversy most, one is fair value is what, namely the definition of the fair value of the meaning not clear. This is also a question of the application of the fair value of the core problem, determine the meaning of fair value, fair value measurement to determine the direction and target. Our fair value describing ambiguous, connotation and extension of uncertainty, not specific, may lead to confusion in practice application. The fair value is what the understanding is different, the fair value measurement using assumptions, techniques and methods may be different, measuring the results of the difference can be large, measurement reliability will be reduced. 1.3 the United States of America fair value definition development reference to China 1orderly transaction. The United States of orderly transaction and the international accounting standards board IASB and our country Ministry of Finance stated even bargain concept has bigger difference. Orderly transaction emphasize in the market full disclosure and assets or liabilities owners initiative, and even bargain emphasize the transaction itself the unforced. Orderly transaction concept can be covered even bargain concept. 2compared to the SFASNO.157, Chinas new accounting standards will be the fair value is defined as the transaction both sides of transaction is generated based on the amount, but not clearly expressed concern at the price. In some cases such as the related party transaction even if the transaction both sides, the price is also a lack of fairness, but also reduces the reliability of. Chinas new accounting standards fair value makers provided only limited to both parties to the transaction, and not its extension to the participants of the market range, therefore, the fair value of the developed after the absence of sufficient market equilibrium, and contain more involved in subjective components or hypothetical components, reliability needs to be improved. And in the SFASNO.57 definition. price decision is the asset or liability owners outside of the market activity, in introducing more market factors, increase the fair value of the objective to make more efforts to make fair prices, more reliable SFASNO.157 more trust from the external market price. 3the definition of market and the international definition of involved in the transaction parties, market participants the scope to be bigger. Because, although the price in trading by parties to the transaction is selected, but there is an active market, the price actually depends on other market participants to trade between the equilibrium price; and in some cases, pricing is not a trading conditions, such as asset revaluation, the reference market pricing the other participant in the transaction price. Therefore, the introduction of market participants concept makes the fair value has more reliability, but also deepen the concept of fair value. 2 the application of the fair value of market conditions 2.1fair value market conditions The definition of fair value can be seen in fair value and market conditions of the relationship. IASB and fair value in China is defined as the even bargain, the Party of be in voluntary basis for exchange of assets or liabilities repayment amount. The United States FASB accounting standards issued by the FASl57 fair value in the definition of fair value in the measurement for with market traders in an orderly transaction, sale of assets or liabilities received transfer price. As can be seen from the definition, the first is the fair value of assets or liabilities in the transaction price, the transaction usually refers to the market, i.e., between two or more parties in the market of commodity exchange. In the definition of fair value is similar to the market price, of course, the market price is not to leave the market access. Secondly, from China to the definition of fair value in, the transaction price is in even bargain, and familiar with the transaction both sides burst transaction prices, the United States of America s Financial Accounting Standards Board noted that the transaction price is in an orderly transaction conducted, orderly market hypothesis in the measurement with a period of time before the market has existing assets or liabilities of the conventional transaction, the transaction is a kind of forced transaction. Whether fair value is active on the market the actual transaction price In essence, the fair value is a kind of evaluation based on market information. The fair value of the identified three ways, namely, the existence of market trade, exchange price for the fair value; market price is all market participants fully consideration of an asset or liability in the future cash flow and its uncertainty after the formation of the consensus, if there is no evidence to the contrary that the transaction is unfair or not voluntary, market transaction price for the asset or indebted evenhanded value; in the absence of actual transaction situation, should search on the market similar to similar transaction, transaction price as the fair value measurement basis, an asset or liability if no observable, directly determines the price by the market, it is stipulated in the contract or can be expected in the future cash flow can be estimated, can use the present value of estimated fair value of technology. On the fair value measurement requirements of what kind of market environment, Hunan University professor Xie Shifen 2001 discusses the very good answer to this question fair value only require even bargain, does not require active market, the market economy and the developed market economy, the market demand is not high. That the fair value to active market economy, or the fair value is not used for the view is wrong. It hinders Chinas system of accounting standards and international accounting standards in the process, China has the right to establish the fair value measurement and its specific target path south. Commercialize degree, fair value is the premise of even bargain. The high degree of marketization, market activity is as fair value acquisition provides a good foundation, but in the low degree of market situation, voluntary, mutual benefit, equivalence based even bargain still exists, resulting even bargain prices through multiple channels can get. Even in the absence of actual transactions occur, may also through imitate market transaction parameters judgements and estimates, or through the present value method and mathematical method to calculate the fair value. In fact, the so-called active market is only relative, not a country or area, all sorts of assets and liabilities are active in the market, no one country or area, all sorts of assets and liabilities are not there is an active market. Of course, the market is more active, the fair value of the more favorable. 2.2 Chinas application of fair value conditions In our country, many accounting profession of our country current element market is mature, the lack of active market, fair value is often difficult to obtain, the market environment is not suitable for the application of fair value, fair value application requires active mature market, while China is precisely the lack of this kind of market, so in our country it is difficult to apply fair value. The application of fair value needed to have certain market conditions, but we can not because the conditions are not ripe or not fully mature and avoid or resist the implementation of fair value and should take a positive attitude and continue to nurture and improve the fair value application environment. You can see from the above analysis, not only there is an active market in order to obtain the fair value. Our country has partial with use of the fair value of the actual conditions. 1 the development of the financial market for the application of fair value of laying a foundation for Chinas capital market after 10 years of development has accumulated a certain theoretical and practical basis. With international economic integration degree deepening, the international capital market between mutual infiltration and mutual restriction for our first implementation of the fair value in the financial market provides feasibility. More and more enterprises to participate in the financial markets for investment or hedging, resulting in a large number of related financial tools business. According to the transaction object, the financial market can be divided into the foreign exchange market, capital market and gold market, according to financial instruments duration, capital market can be divided into the money market and capital market. These markets on the current accounting theory and practice effects were the major foreign exchange market, monetary market and capital market. The development of the financial market for the use of fair value request also provided stage. From short-term financial markets such as the bill, bond market and stock market, many enterprises have participated in. With Chinas futures and options market development, large enterprises using the financial derivatives market investment, hedging and risk management has become a kind of trend. Corporate financial statements and financial tools related to business and the growing proportion, either table business or business outside statement is true. 2 the fair value measurement in terms of the technical problems have been breakthroughs in fair value not only as short-term investments and derivative financial instruments measurement basis, and continues to expand into other areas, such as long-term investments. In fact, since investors because of the decision to produce to company earnings information needs, fair value accounting is becoming more and more favored by investors and creditors, because of the need to calculate a company during a period of comprehensive income, the company s assets and liabilities must adopt fair value measurement, just as fair value the attributes of the historical cost measurement attribute to the traditional accounting model deviation, can not be accepted accounting personnel, plus in practice, many of

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