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如何应对品牌老化[文献翻译]-其他专业.doc

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如何应对品牌老化[文献翻译]-其他专业.doc

毕业论文(设计)外文翻译 标题How To Cope With Aging Brands 原文Individual brands, or even whole categories, that were once important for a particular consumer segment, become irrelevant as society evolves and tastes change. In the past, one of the most common situations in which“brands aged badly” revolved around strong associations with national pride. Many brands, such as US automakers Ford and GM, once successfully owned this space. Over time, however, the kind of brand attributes that they were associated with lost their importance as purchase drivers. This was due to a diverse set of realities. More relevant attributes emerged such as the rise of the Japanese manufacturer Toyota’s reputation for quality in the US, the lack of relevance in national pride to new generations of consumers and even the emergence of a “global” mindset in which consumers were willing to try new things from other markets. The rise of new generations of consumerswith new ideas and evolving needs and wantsmeant that although these legacy national pride associated brands retained their distinguishing characteristics from their competitors, their attributes were no longer relevant. This situation has been faced by a lot of European brands in categories such as retail, air travel, telecommunications, and many others in which strong brands differentiated themselves by emphasizing their origin and roots brands like France Telecom, British Airways, or Marks Spencer. A current example of this situation is observed at Waitrose, the upscale UK grocery retailer. With the credit crunch, mainstream consumer segments are moving away from premium price products as they recognize that acceptable quality exists elsewhere. The ethical and “British grown” part of the equity of Waitrose is not relevant enough to consumers, who are switching to cheaper and even to “foreign” brands such as the European hard discount retailers, Aldi and Lidl, that are performing quite strongly in the UK market. Brands such as Waitrose now face a tough question Should I completely lose my current brand equity association so I can become relevant to new consumersThe answer to this question is usually no. Brands need to evolve their legacy to make sure the things that differentiate them from their competitors are complemented by more relevant purchase drivers. They need to upgrade the different touch points of the business, create new product brands, eliminate others, and launch new product lines. Recent corporate history is littered with examples of brands needing to adjust their brand image to cope with new scenarios and a new generation of consumers. When telecommunications companies evolved from public-sector businesses to multi-service providers, first expanding into mobile telephony, they created new brands. These were not completely independent from the traditional fixed line operator branding but incorporated new attributes that were relevant to this new line of business. Again, the beneficial aspects of the legacy of the aging brand which provided scale, reliability, and trust were complemented by the personality of the new mobile brand. This meant that old fixed telephony brands were able to compete with strong, young attacker brands. One of the most successful examples of this was the launch and consolidation of Telefnica’s Movistar brand in Spain and Latin America. The Telefnica brand had a strong trust in its core Spain and Latin American markets, and it leveraged on its equity as the big, traditional, and Spanish national incumbent. The Spanish side of this equation lost relevance in Spain and even became negative in Latin America, where the company wanted to move away from a perception of “here comes the Spanish colonialism again.” Also, the emergence of mobile communications required it to have a more emotional relationship with consumers. In this context, Telefnica evolved its legacy brand to dial up the aspects of its equity that were relevant to residential and corporate consumers, such as quality, innovation, and any other magnitude related attributes that would build trust. Also, its Spanish roots were shifted into emphasizing its corporate spirit of progress essence, which highlighted the positive impact that the company had in developing the economy in emerging markets. In parallel, it developed the younger Movistar brand. This brand would be supported by the equity of Telefnica but would allow communication with consumers in a language that was more relevant in the mobile business. But the problem of aging brands is not limited to those with a patriotic tradition, as can be seen from the example of Burger King. Burger King was an “old” brand that consistently underperformed its category. The essence of its message was ”We make better burgers, have them your way,” and this became irrelevant to its consumer base worldwide, who felt much closer to the more emotional approach to the fast food consumption experience that McDonald’s was communicating. It took Burger King time and multiple changes to its ownership structure, advertising campaigns, management teams, and go-to-market strategies before it finally understood that its brand had become irrelevant to males 18–35 years old. After it recognised this and took appropriate action, the fast food giant never looked back. It reshaped its brand, tapping into its roots and embracing innovation across the four PsProduct, Price, Promotion, and Place. Burger King’s brand evolved its “better quality burger” approach into a rule-breaking, politically incorrect positioning in which it almost tells the consumer, “Yes, we know it is fast food, we know it is red meat, but this is what you like, you like our big and greasy burgers, and nobody needs to tell you what is and isn’t good for you.” Coupled with bold advertising and innovative social media campaigns, this put Burger King back on the map with more than13 straight quarters of sales growth. Stannah Stairiifts is attempting to give its advertising a more modern feel by removing the distress purchase stigma associated with its products. Leagas Delaney has won the companys 2m abovethe- line account, and will create a campaign to reinvent the UKs largest independent manufacturer of passenger lifts and vertical platforms MW last week. Stannah marketing manager Shelley Cole says the agency will be responsible for highlighting the positive aspects of its stairlifts and associated range. It is about creating more of an emotional attachment to the brand and talking to people about the category in a different way, Cole says. The brand, which has traditionally concentrated advertising around the mobility section of newspapers classified pages, aims to broaden the appeal of its products among lower age brackets. This is not just a product for very old people. We want to encourage people to purchase it earlier in life, she says. The company took steps to revamp its image last year with the launch of two new models, the Solus and Sofia. Stannah is among several brands that have at one time been considered second rate in the UK, but subsequently rose to prominence. A classic example is the dramatic rebirth of Skoda. Once considered a national joke, the Volkswagen-owned brand marketed itself back into favour with the launch of the Its a Skoda. Honest campaign. Chris Hawken, who joined Skoda as marketing director in 1998, criticised the companys product-centric advertising at that time for focusing on quietly targeting non-rejections rather than actually changing perceptions. Hawken, who has since become brand communications manager at Audi, worked alongside Fallon London to develop a strategy which used self-deprecating humour to convince consumers to reassess the company as a quality car manufacturer. Hawken stresses the importance of having a strong product to support any campaign tackling a poor brand image. Peter Shaw, managing director of branding consultancy Brand Catalyst, agrees that for consumers to reappraise a brand there must be truth behind the products on offer. A major reason Skoda could shift its image was because everyone knew it was a Volkswagen [design] and respected what was happening behind the brand. he explains. Such drastic shifts are also evident in the high street, with the rise to prominence of discount retailers such as Primark. For years, the Associated British Foods-owned chain was considered highly unfashionable. But more recently, it has discovered a new-found status among value boutiques, cementing its place among the UKs four biggest womenswear retailers. Shaw says Stannahs tactics closely echo changes implemented by Saatchinvest-owned meal replacement product Complan. The Company instructed Williams Murray Hamm last year to rebrand the product with a radical new look to counter clinical and elderly perceptions ahead of the launch of its energy drink and bar. But while he agrees from a corporate perspective that Stannah could successfully reposition as a modem and dynamic business, he warns of the dangers of alienating its core market in the process. You can dress it up all you want, but if you cant get up the stairs it is a distress Purchase , he concludes. In the UK, we have recently observed how complete product lines at aging brands have died and then reinvented themselves. This situation is quite different from the previous scenarios outlined above because it assumes that the equity that existed needs to be completely wiped out before a brand is able to become relevant to a different segment of consumers. This is probably the reasoning behind the radical branding shift visible at the retail chain from Virgin Megastores to Zavvi. Management of the CD-retailer-turned-video-game-shopthought that its strong legacy brand, Virgin, was not appropriate for the new directions they wanted for the business. This is quite interesting as it implies that the irreverent/Richard Branson part of the equity of Virginthat has worked so well in expanding the brand into new territorieswas no longer relevant for the new consumer segment that the chain wanted to target. In this context, they completely wiped out all the brand equity and develop a new brand and a new mark. Not all cases are necessary so dramatic. Sometimes brands just need innovation-driven tactical solutions to rejuvenate themselves and become relevant. For example, the alcohol industry noticed that consumers loved to drink from martini glasses, so you had Sex and the City’s cosmopolitan, bringing vodka and triple sec back on to the scene; or how about putting some Baileys on your coffee From these examples, we can see the different directions that companies with aging brands can take. Telefnica kept its stronger functional attributes and developed a new brand that benefits from it but that can talk to consumers in a more relevant language; Burger King made its brand edgier around its core quality attributes and invested across the four Ps to reshape its image; and Zavvi became a completely different brand with little leverage on its legacy brand Virgin. To make these decisions, all these companies needed to understand the purchase drivers of their consumers and which parts of their legacy brands, if any, were still relevant and differentiated them from rivals. Brands agingbadlyis a reality in multiple industries. Once the company acknowledges the need for change, which is often difficult given their legacy and strong brand equity, the most important decision is to decide which part of the old equity, if any, can evolveor whether a completely new brand is needed. With the right decisions on these points, most brands can live long and healthy lives. 出处Joseph Gelman, How To Cope With Aging Brands The story of brands getting old is a story of relevance. World Advertising Research Center. 二、翻译文章 标题如何应对品牌老化 译文对一些特殊消费群体来说,曾经重要的独立品牌,甚?#20102;?#26377;类别,随着社会的发展和喜好的改变都变?#26790;?#20851;紧要了。 在过去,最常见“品牌老化?#29616;亍?#30340;情况通常围绕于强?#19994;?#27665;族自豪?#23567;?#24456;多品牌,像美国汽车制造商福特和通用,曾经成功地拥有这个空间。?#27426;?#38543;着时间的推移,他们认为作为购买的驱动,他们已经失去了重要性。这归因于多样化的现实。更多相关的特性显露出来,例如在美国,日本制造商丰田以质量而日益闻名,新一代的消费者缺乏应有的民族自豪感,甚至在“全球化”的心态中,消费者愿意去尝试其他市场出现的新事物。 有着新想法和新需求的新一代消费者的出现,意味着尽管这些遗留着民族自豪感的品牌保留着区别于竞争者的特殊特性,他们的特性也不再重要了。 很多?#20998;?#21697;牌面临着这种情况,如零售,航空旅游,电信,还有很多以强调起源来使自己差别化的强势企业如法国电信,英国航空公司,或者马莎百货。 目前这种情况的一个例?#37038;?#33521;国高端零售企业,维特罗斯。随着信贷紧缩,主流消费群体正?#29420;?#39640;价位产品,因为他们认识到合格的质量不只在这。维特罗斯的伦理和“英国土生土长”的权益对消费者来说不够重要,他们正转向更便宜的品牌,甚至一些外国品牌,如?#20998;?#30828;折扣零售商Aldi和Lidl,他们在英国市场中变得越来越重要。 像维特罗斯这样的品牌现在正面临一个严峻的问题我应该?#29260;?#29616;在的品牌价值去迎?#38386;?#30340;消费者吗这个问题的答案通常是否定的。 品?#21697;?#23637;要有他们的特色,来确保他们的产品比其他竞争者有更强大的购买驱动力。他们需要升级不同的业务接触点,研发新的产品品牌,排除其他的,建立新的产业链。近期,公司摒弃了历史,以品牌为例,他们需要重塑他们的品牌形象,来迎?#38386;?#30340;场景和新?#30446;?#26381;群。电信公司为了给更多的服务供应商提供服务,改进了公共部门业务,首先,普及移动电话,他们创造了新的品牌。 这些并不是完全不同于传统的固定经营品牌化,而是通过?#21916;?#26032;的商业链这些新的属性。此外,遗留了的老化了的品牌的提供了可信的?#38382;?#23545;个性的新型?#21482;?#21697;牌做补充。这将意味着旧的固定电话与新的强大的竞争品牌?#30446;购狻?以最成功的西班牙电信公司为例,西班牙电信品牌成功的在西班牙和拉丁?#20048;?#35774;立和得到了巩固。.西班牙电信品牌有着很好的信誉,是西班牙和拉丁?#20048;?#24066;场的核心,作为巨大的,传统的,西班牙国内品牌,对市场公正的杠?#35828;?#33410;是义不容辞的。西班牙电信公司在西班牙失去了价值,在拉丁?#20048;?#29978;至产生了?#22909;?#24433;响,公司想改变“这里再次成为?#23435;?#29677;牙的殖民地”这一看法。 而且,?#21482;?#20132;流方式的出现,加大了与消费者的情感交流的需求。因此,西班牙电话公司?#26377;?#20102;他们原有的品牌,来确保那些与当地?#29992;?#28040;费者有关内容的公平性。比如质量,创新,以及任何凡是有利于帮助他们建立信任度的重要举措。 另外,他们的西班牙式方式也被转换成了一种强调他们的全体前进的精髓式精神,这对公司在发展市场经济中起到了一个非常积极的作用。与此同?#20445;?#27492;公司也发展了一个新生的,名为Movistar 的品牌。这个品牌会受到西班牙电话公?#38236;?#24179;等对待与支持,但是,却会?#24066;?#22312;与消费者的语?#36234;?#27969;中加入更多的移动业务。 但是从汉堡王这个例子中可以看到,品牌老化的问题不止限于那些爱国传?#22330;?汉堡王是个老牌子,在它的产品种类上的表现一贯地不好。他的宗旨是“我们做更好的汉堡,用你们的方式享用?#20445;?#20294;它与消费者是没有任何关?#26723;模?#28040;费者更喜欢麦当劳的交流方式,她更加的富有感情。 在汉堡王最后意识到他们的品牌失去了18到35岁的消费者后,花费了大量的时间,进行了多方面的改变,包括在公司结构,广告,管理团队和市场战略上。然后采取了?#23454;?#30340;行动,使快餐巨头继续前进。它重?#28388;?#36896;了它的品牌,在产品,价格,推销,销售地点上?#27426;?#25366;掘,创新。 汉堡王的品牌将它 “质量更好的汉堡包”发展成为一个打破成规、政治上错误定位的品牌,这?#36127;?#21578;诉消费者,“是的,我?#20405;?#36947;这是快餐,我?#20405;浪?#26159;红肉,但这就是你喜欢的,你就是喜欢我们的大而油腻的汉堡包,没有人需要告诉你这是什么、这对你好不好。”再加上大胆的广告宣传以及创新的公众?#25945;?#27963;动,这一切都使得汉堡王这个品牌回到了地图上它的位置-销售增长超过了13个季度。 Stannah Stairiifts正试图给自己的广告通过删除与其产品有关的“窘迫购买“的更现代的感觉。Leagas Delaney赢得了该公?#38236;?00万英镑以上的一线账户,并将创建一个活动以重塑英国最大?#30446;?#36816;升降机及垂直?#25945;?#30340;独立制造商。 Stannah市场部经理Shelley Cole表示该机构负责强调它的积极方面及相关的范围。它是用一种不同的方式关于创造更多关于不同品牌和与?#31169;?#27969;感情的种类。 品牌,一直集中广告在流动部分报纸的分类页,旨在扩大其产品的吸引力在?#31995;?#30340;年龄群内。“这不仅仅是给老人的产品。我们想要鼓励人们能早点将其买下,”她说。公司采取措施改善自己的形象去年推出两款新车型,Solus和Sofia. Stannah被收录品牌,在某一时刻被认为是二流,但随后又在英国?#32469;稹?#26368;典型的例子就是斯柯达?#33041;?#29983;。曾一度被认为是国?#24066;?#26564;,大众品牌销售通过推出这款“这是斯柯达-诚实”运动而重新被?#37038;堋?Chris Hawken 改变了观念,1998年他加入了斯柯达公司,做了该公?#38236;?#24066;场营销主任,对公司在那时排斥以产品为中心的广告而不是改变其观念,表?#20061;?#35780;。Hawken?#28304;?#25104;为奥迪品牌的公关经理之后,一直遵循着自己的战略目标,就是用谦虚幽默的让消费者相信这个公司是非常好的汽车制造商。 Hawken强调一个重点就是一个好的产品能支持一个公司处理一个差的品牌形象。Peter Shaw从事一个催化剂品牌的形象的咨询工作,她同意对于消费者来说去重新评价一个品牌形象就是产品的可靠性。他解释“一个主要的原因是斯柯达能转变它的形象是因为每个人都知?#26469;?#20247;,而且知道这个品牌正在经营些什么。”在大街上就存在着这些?#26412;?#30340;转变,商家升高了打折力度,就像普拉玛多。一些年之后,英国食物产业链被认为是非常的不合潮流。但是最近发现一个新的情形,在一些有价?#26723;?#31934;品店将他们的店面选在一些英国最大的四大女装的商家附近。去年,公司委托Williams Murray Hamm用全新的视角来重新命名品牌,使之上升进入新台阶以抵制在发动它的能量之前产生“简陋”和“成旧”的感觉。 但是,在他相信Stannah能够成功地重新定位一个现代的,并且有活力的商业模式的同?#20445;?#20182;也警告了背离核心市场过程中的危险性。他总结到你可以?#38405;?#30340;?#38382;?#25171;造它,但是不能越级,因为,那将会是一场危险收益行为。 我们最近发现,英国老龄化品牌的完善的生产线是如何?#21171;觥?#22914;何重新?#33041;?#30340;。这种情况跟上述提到的情况是完全不同的,因为它假设利益是存在的,而在一个品牌能够成为跟消费者有关的一部分以前,利益是需要完全考虑在外的。这可能就是维珍超级百货公?#38236;某?#24213;的品牌转变,转变到Zawi音像零售连锁店背后的原因。 CD零售商出身的视频游戏商店的管理者认为它自己是强大的传统品牌,Virgin这个品牌不适合他们的业务的新方向。这很有趣,因为它意味着与Virgin利益不相关的Richard Branson在拓展品牌到新的领域时做得很好,

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