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如何應對品牌老化[文獻翻譯]-其他專業.doc

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如何應對品牌老化[文獻翻譯]-其他專業.doc

畢業論文(設計)外文翻譯 標題How To Cope With Aging Brands 原文Individual brands, or even whole categories, that were once important for a particular consumer segment, become irrelevant as society evolves and tastes change. In the past, one of the most common situations in which“brands aged badly” revolved around strong associations with national pride. Many brands, such as US automakers Ford and GM, once successfully owned this space. Over time, however, the kind of brand attributes that they were associated with lost their importance as purchase drivers. This was due to a diverse set of realities. More relevant attributes emerged such as the rise of the Japanese manufacturer Toyota’s reputation for quality in the US, the lack of relevance in national pride to new generations of consumers and even the emergence of a “global” mindset in which consumers were willing to try new things from other markets. The rise of new generations of consumerswith new ideas and evolving needs and wantsmeant that although these legacy national pride associated brands retained their distinguishing characteristics from their competitors, their attributes were no longer relevant. This situation has been faced by a lot of European brands in categories such as retail, air travel, telecommunications, and many others in which strong brands differentiated themselves by emphasizing their origin and roots brands like France Telecom, British Airways, or Marks Spencer. A current example of this situation is observed at Waitrose, the upscale UK grocery retailer. With the credit crunch, mainstream consumer segments are moving away from premium price products as they recognize that acceptable quality exists elsewhere. The ethical and “British grown” part of the equity of Waitrose is not relevant enough to consumers, who are switching to cheaper and even to “foreign” brands such as the European hard discount retailers, Aldi and Lidl, that are performing quite strongly in the UK market. Brands such as Waitrose now face a tough question Should I completely lose my current brand equity association so I can become relevant to new consumersThe answer to this question is usually no. Brands need to evolve their legacy to make sure the things that differentiate them from their competitors are complemented by more relevant purchase drivers. They need to upgrade the different touch points of the business, create new product brands, eliminate others, and launch new product lines. Recent corporate history is littered with examples of brands needing to adjust their brand image to cope with new scenarios and a new generation of consumers. When telecommunications companies evolved from public-sector businesses to multi-service providers, first expanding into mobile telephony, they created new brands. These were not completely independent from the traditional fixed line operator branding but incorporated new attributes that were relevant to this new line of business. Again, the beneficial aspects of the legacy of the aging brand which provided scale, reliability, and trust were complemented by the personality of the new mobile brand. This meant that old fixed telephony brands were able to compete with strong, young attacker brands. One of the most successful examples of this was the launch and consolidation of Telefnica’s Movistar brand in Spain and Latin America. The Telefnica brand had a strong trust in its core Spain and Latin American markets, and it leveraged on its equity as the big, traditional, and Spanish national incumbent. The Spanish side of this equation lost relevance in Spain and even became negative in Latin America, where the company wanted to move away from a perception of “here comes the Spanish colonialism again.” Also, the emergence of mobile communications required it to have a more emotional relationship with consumers. In this context, Telefnica evolved its legacy brand to dial up the aspects of its equity that were relevant to residential and corporate consumers, such as quality, innovation, and any other magnitude related attributes that would build trust. Also, its Spanish roots were shifted into emphasizing its corporate spirit of progress essence, which highlighted the positive impact that the company had in developing the economy in emerging markets. In parallel, it developed the younger Movistar brand. This brand would be supported by the equity of Telefnica but would allow communication with consumers in a language that was more relevant in the mobile business. But the problem of aging brands is not limited to those with a patriotic tradition, as can be seen from the example of Burger King. Burger King was an “old” brand that consistently underperformed its category. The essence of its message was ”We make better burgers, have them your way,” and this became irrelevant to its consumer base worldwide, who felt much closer to the more emotional approach to the fast food consumption experience that McDonald’s was communicating. It took Burger King time and multiple changes to its ownership structure, advertising campaigns, management teams, and go-to-market strategies before it finally understood that its brand had become irrelevant to males 18–35 years old. After it recognised this and took appropriate action, the fast food giant never looked back. It reshaped its brand, tapping into its roots and embracing innovation across the four PsProduct, Price, Promotion, and Place. Burger King’s brand evolved its “better quality burger” approach into a rule-breaking, politically incorrect positioning in which it almost tells the consumer, “Yes, we know it is fast food, we know it is red meat, but this is what you like, you like our big and greasy burgers, and nobody needs to tell you what is and isn’t good for you.” Coupled with bold advertising and innovative social media campaigns, this put Burger King back on the map with more than13 straight quarters of sales growth. Stannah Stairiifts is attempting to give its advertising a more modern feel by removing the distress purchase stigma associated with its products. Leagas Delaney has won the companys 2m abovethe- line account, and will create a campaign to reinvent the UKs largest independent manufacturer of passenger lifts and vertical platforms MW last week. Stannah marketing manager Shelley Cole says the agency will be responsible for highlighting the positive aspects of its stairlifts and associated range. It is about creating more of an emotional attachment to the brand and talking to people about the category in a different way, Cole says. The brand, which has traditionally concentrated advertising around the mobility section of newspapers classified pages, aims to broaden the appeal of its products among lower age brackets. This is not just a product for very old people. We want to encourage people to purchase it earlier in life, she says. The company took steps to revamp its image last year with the launch of two new models, the Solus and Sofia. Stannah is among several brands that have at one time been considered second rate in the UK, but subsequently rose to prominence. A classic example is the dramatic rebirth of Skoda. Once considered a national joke, the Volkswagen-owned brand marketed itself back into favour with the launch of the Its a Skoda. Honest campaign. Chris Hawken, who joined Skoda as marketing director in 1998, criticised the companys product-centric advertising at that time for focusing on quietly targeting non-rejections rather than actually changing perceptions. Hawken, who has since become brand communications manager at Audi, worked alongside Fallon London to develop a strategy which used self-deprecating humour to convince consumers to reassess the company as a quality car manufacturer. Hawken stresses the importance of having a strong product to support any campaign tackling a poor brand image. Peter Shaw, managing director of branding consultancy Brand Catalyst, agrees that for consumers to reappraise a brand there must be truth behind the products on offer. A major reason Skoda could shift its image was because everyone knew it was a Volkswagen [design] and respected what was happening behind the brand. he explains. Such drastic shifts are also evident in the high street, with the rise to prominence of discount retailers such as Primark. For years, the Associated British Foods-owned chain was considered highly unfashionable. But more recently, it has discovered a new-found status among value boutiques, cementing its place among the UKs four biggest womenswear retailers. Shaw says Stannahs tactics closely echo changes implemented by Saatchinvest-owned meal replacement product Complan. The Company instructed Williams Murray Hamm last year to rebrand the product with a radical new look to counter clinical and elderly perceptions ahead of the launch of its energy drink and bar. But while he agrees from a corporate perspective that Stannah could successfully reposition as a modem and dynamic business, he warns of the dangers of alienating its core market in the process. You can dress it up all you want, but if you cant get up the stairs it is a distress Purchase , he concludes. In the UK, we have recently observed how complete product lines at aging brands have died and then reinvented themselves. This situation is quite different from the previous scenarios outlined above because it assumes that the equity that existed needs to be completely wiped out before a brand is able to become relevant to a different segment of consumers. This is probably the reasoning behind the radical branding shift visible at the retail chain from Virgin Megastores to Zavvi. Management of the CD-retailer-turned-video-game-shopthought that its strong legacy brand, Virgin, was not appropriate for the new directions they wanted for the business. This is quite interesting as it implies that the irreverent/Richard Branson part of the equity of Virginthat has worked so well in expanding the brand into new territorieswas no longer relevant for the new consumer segment that the chain wanted to target. In this context, they completely wiped out all the brand equity and develop a new brand and a new mark. Not all cases are necessary so dramatic. Sometimes brands just need innovation-driven tactical solutions to rejuvenate themselves and become relevant. For example, the alcohol industry noticed that consumers loved to drink from martini glasses, so you had Sex and the City’s cosmopolitan, bringing vodka and triple sec back on to the scene; or how about putting some Baileys on your coffee From these examples, we can see the different directions that companies with aging brands can take. Telefnica kept its stronger functional attributes and developed a new brand that benefits from it but that can talk to consumers in a more relevant language; Burger King made its brand edgier around its core quality attributes and invested across the four Ps to reshape its image; and Zavvi became a completely different brand with little leverage on its legacy brand Virgin. To make these decisions, all these companies needed to understand the purchase drivers of their consumers and which parts of their legacy brands, if any, were still relevant and differentiated them from rivals. Brands agingbadlyis a reality in multiple industries. Once the company acknowledges the need for change, which is often difficult given their legacy and strong brand equity, the most important decision is to decide which part of the old equity, if any, can evolveor whether a completely new brand is needed. With the right decisions on these points, most brands can live long and healthy lives. 出處Joseph Gelman, How To Cope With Aging Brands The story of brands getting old is a story of relevance. World Advertising Research Center. 二、翻譯文章 標題如何應對品牌老化 譯文對一些特殊消費群體來說,曾經重要的獨立品牌,甚至所有類別,隨著社會的發展和喜好的改變都變得無關緊要了。 在過去,最常見“品牌老化嚴重”的情況通常圍繞于強烈的民族自豪感。很多品牌,像美國汽車制造商福特和通用,曾經成功地擁有這個空間。然而,隨著時間的推移,他們認為作為購買的驅動,他們已經失去了重要性。這歸因于多樣化的現實。更多相關的特性顯露出來,例如在美國,日本制造商豐田以質量而日益聞名,新一代的消費者缺乏應有的民族自豪感,甚至在“全球化”的心態中,消費者愿意去嘗試其他市場出現的新事物。 有著新想法和新需求的新一代消費者的出現,意味著盡管這些遺留著民族自豪感的品牌保留著區別于競爭者的特殊特性,他們的特性也不再重要了。 很多歐洲品牌面臨著這種情況,如零售,航空旅游,電信,還有很多以強調起源來使自己差別化的強勢企業如法國電信,英國航空公司,或者馬莎百貨。 目前這種情況的一個例子是英國高端零售企業,維特羅斯。隨著信貸緊縮,主流消費群體正遠離高價位產品,因為他們認識到合格的質量不只在這。維特羅斯的倫理和“英國土生土長”的權益對消費者來說不夠重要,他們正轉向更便宜的品牌,甚至一些外國品牌,如歐洲硬折扣零售商Aldi和Lidl,他們在英國市場中變得越來越重要。 像維特羅斯這樣的品牌現在正面臨一個嚴峻的問題我應該放棄現在的品牌價值去迎合新的消費者嗎這個問題的答案通常是否定的。 品牌發展要有他們的特色,來確保他們的產品比其他競爭者有更強大的購買驅動力。他們需要升級不同的業務接觸點,研發新的產品品牌,排除其他的,建立新的產業鏈。近期,公司摒棄了歷史,以品牌為例,他們需要重塑他們的品牌形象,來迎合新的場景和新的客服群。電信公司為了給更多的服務供應商提供服務,改進了公共部門業務,首先,普及移動電話,他們創造了新的品牌。 這些并不是完全不同于傳統的固定經營品牌化,而是通過合并新的商業鏈這些新的屬性。此外,遺留了的老化了的品牌的提供了可信的參數,對個性的新型手機品牌做補充。這將意味著舊的固定電話與新的強大的競爭品牌的抗衡。 以最成功的西班牙電信公司為例,西班牙電信品牌成功的在西班牙和拉丁美洲設立和得到了鞏固。.西班牙電信品牌有著很好的信譽,是西班牙和拉丁美洲市場的核心,作為巨大的,傳統的,西班牙國內品牌,對市場公正的杠桿調節是義不容辭的。西班牙電信公司在西班牙失去了價值,在拉丁美洲甚至產生了負面影響,公司想改變“這里再次成為了西班牙的殖民地”這一看法。 而且,手機交流方式的出現,加大了與消費者的情感交流的需求。因此,西班牙電話公司延續了他們原有的品牌,來確保那些與當地居民消費者有關內容的公平性。比如質量,創新,以及任何凡是有利于幫助他們建立信任度的重要舉措。 另外,他們的西班牙式方式也被轉換成了一種強調他們的全體前進的精髓式精神,這對公司在發展市場經濟中起到了一個非常積極的作用。與此同時,此公司也發展了一個新生的,名為Movistar 的品牌。這個品牌會受到西班牙電話公司的平等對待與支持,但是,卻會允許在與消費者的語言交流中加入更多的移動業務。 但是從漢堡王這個例子中可以看到,品牌老化的問題不止限于那些愛國傳統。 漢堡王是個老牌子,在它的產品種類上的表現一貫地不好。他的宗旨是“我們做更好的漢堡,用你們的方式享用”,但它與消費者是沒有任何關系的,消費者更喜歡麥當勞的交流方式,她更加的富有感情。 在漢堡王最后意識到他們的品牌失去了18到35歲的消費者后,花費了大量的時間,進行了多方面的改變,包括在公司結構,廣告,管理團隊和市場戰略上。然后采取了適當的行動,使快餐巨頭繼續前進。它重新塑造了它的品牌,在產品,價格,推銷,銷售地點上不斷挖掘,創新。 漢堡王的品牌將它 “質量更好的漢堡包”發展成為一個打破成規、政治上錯誤定位的品牌,這幾乎告訴消費者,“是的,我們知道這是快餐,我們知道它是紅肉,但這就是你喜歡的,你就是喜歡我們的大而油膩的漢堡包,沒有人需要告訴你這是什么、這對你好不好。”再加上大膽的廣告宣傳以及創新的公眾媒體活動,這一切都使得漢堡王這個品牌回到了地圖上它的位置-銷售增長超過了13個季度。 Stannah Stairiifts正試圖給自己的廣告通過刪除與其產品有關的“窘迫購買“的更現代的感覺。Leagas Delaney贏得了該公司的200萬英鎊以上的一線賬戶,并將創建一個活動以重塑英國最大的客運升降機及垂直平臺的獨立制造商。 Stannah市場部經理Shelley Cole表示該機構負責強調它的積極方面及相關的范圍。它是用一種不同的方式關于創造更多關于不同品牌和與人交流感情的種類。 品牌,一直集中廣告在流動部分報紙的分類頁,旨在擴大其產品的吸引力在較低的年齡群內。“這不僅僅是給老人的產品。我們想要鼓勵人們能早點將其買下,”她說。公司采取措施改善自己的形象去年推出兩款新車型,Solus和Sofia. Stannah被收錄品牌,在某一時刻被認為是二流,但隨后又在英國崛起。最典型的例子就是斯柯達的再生。曾一度被認為是國際笑柄,大眾品牌銷售通過推出這款“這是斯柯達-誠實”運動而重新被接受。 Chris Hawken 改變了觀念,1998年他加入了斯柯達公司,做了該公司的市場營銷主任,對公司在那時排斥以產品為中心的廣告而不是改變其觀念,表示批評。Hawken自從成為奧迪品牌的公關經理之后,一直遵循著自己的戰略目標,就是用謙虛幽默的讓消費者相信這個公司是非常好的汽車制造商。 Hawken強調一個重點就是一個好的產品能支持一個公司處理一個差的品牌形象。Peter Shaw從事一個催化劑品牌的形象的咨詢工作,她同意對于消費者來說去重新評價一個品牌形象就是產品的可靠性。他解釋“一個主要的原因是斯柯達能轉變它的形象是因為每個人都知道大眾,而且知道這個品牌正在經營些什么。”在大街上就存在著這些急劇的轉變,商家升高了打折力度,就像普拉瑪多。一些年之后,英國食物產業鏈被認為是非常的不合潮流。但是最近發現一個新的情形,在一些有價值的精品店將他們的店面選在一些英國最大的四大女裝的商家附近。去年,公司委托Williams Murray Hamm用全新的視角來重新命名品牌,使之上升進入新臺階以抵制在發動它的能量之前產生“簡陋”和“成舊”的感覺。 但是,在他相信Stannah能夠成功地重新定位一個現代的,并且有活力的商業模式的同時,他也警告了背離核心市場過程中的危險性。他總結到你可以以你的形式打造它,但是不能越級,因為,那將會是一場危險收益行為。 我們最近發現,英國老齡化品牌的完善的生產線是如何死亡、如何重新改造的。這種情況跟上述提到的情況是完全不同的,因為它假設利益是存在的,而在一個品牌能夠成為跟消費者有關的一部分以前,利益是需要完全考慮在外的。這可能就是維珍超級百貨公司的徹底的品牌轉變,轉變到Zawi音像零售連鎖店背后的原因。 CD零售商出身的視頻游戲商店的管理者認為它自己是強大的傳統品牌,Virgin這個品牌不適合他們的業務的新方向。這很有趣,因為它意味著與Virgin利益不相關的Richard Branson在拓展品牌到新的領域時做得很好,

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