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外文翻譯----基于產業集群系統的創新發展-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯----基于產業集群系統的創新發展-其他專業.doc

畢業論文(設計)譯文原文 系 部 經濟管理系 專 業 工商管理(會 計 學) 學 號 0742821135 姓 名 指導教師 2011年04月20日 INNOVATION SYSTEM-BASED INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER IN INDONESIA AND SOME ASIAN COUNTRIES Abstract This paper is described industrials development and their policies in Indonesia. Beside that, this study analyze industrial cluster development which is conducted by using innovation system approach and is made comparison it with some countries in Asia. This study shows that the industrial cluster is designed to be an agglomeration based on the network of the raw material for production, financing institutions, well provided human resources, and other economics infrastructure. There is lack of interaction among actors in the cluster and RD activities to support innovation in the cluster. Comparative analysis of industrial cluster development in Japan, Taiwan, and China shows that clusters are supported by development of transaction market. It also involves innovation stimulus from the benefit obtained from the presence of the cluster which shows the concentration of large enterprise with various human resources in smaller geographic area. We suggest a recommendation regarding to industrial cluster development to increase technological and innovation capability within cluster in order to make more competitive industrial cluster in Indonesia. Keywords cluster-based industrial development, innovation system approach, Indonesian Industrial policy Introduction Nowadays, economic activities are moving toward knowledge-intensive business, accompanied by rapid development of technology in globalized economy era. This condition has impact on the tight competition, and rapid change in business environment. Domestic manufacturing products are directly compete with foreign products and business world must accept reality that technology advancement has become a reason on the obsolete production facilities, short product life-cycle, and lower profit margin. At the other side, globalizing economy inevitably testifies whether individual regional economies and SMEs in them can compete and survive by showing their own competitiveness or not. Once it was widely believed that the very development of transporting and information technology and borderless economy inevitably break the barrier of distance and make regional economies or industries almost meaningless. Nevertheless, surprisingly a sort of reincarnation of regionalism started in the 1980s, and many academics and researchers then ignited debates as well as numbers of empirical research works on the importance of regional industrial agglomeration and local networking Mitsui, 2003 For the last three decades, industrial agglomerations have played a leading role in the development of cities and regions and have formed a new industrial organizational basis for economic planning and development. The industrial clusters are determined by the trade dependency and concentration of small enterprises at the city and township level Isbasoiu, 2007. It is also known that Alfred Marshal Sonobe and Otsuka, 2006 has studied three benefits of the presence of industrial cluster, as follows 1. Information spillovers 2. Specialization and division of labor between companies 3. Development of skilled labor markets Considering the benefits of industrial cluster for industrial development, Indonesia’s government has formulated National policy of Industrial Development KPIN to compel new direction for future national industry development, and solve problems blocking industrial development at present. This policy is arranged in order to face world global economic challenge and to be able to anticipate rapid environment change. International competition becomes new perspective for all countries, so the focus of strategy of future industrial development is to build sustainable competitiveness of industrial sectors in domestic or foreign market. Industrial development policy in KPIN consists of core and operational strategy, and also main points of policy on industrial development policy, include development of 10 core industry clusters, development of supporting industries, and development of vanquish industry in the future. Policy in KPIN has also considered national industry capability based on economic resources potential, industrial performance, and problems faced by national industry. Nevertheless, the strategy of industrial development in KPIN has not explicitly include element of innovation system in industrial development through cluster approach. KPIN has just shown the needs of the role of RD institution, university and government in order to support industrial cluster development. This can be seen from the relationship framework in KPIN document which include the three actors. Unclear role of RD institution and industrial sector have result in Indonesia’s high import of raw or supporting material technology, as shown in Fig. 1. Thus, the presence of innovation-based industrial cluster can reduce import of raw or supporting material. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the development of industrial cluster in Indonesia, as mentioned in National Policy of Industrial Development KPIN. This paper also discuss about industrial cluster development based on innovation system carried out by Japan, Taiwan, and China. The result is then compared with Indonesias industrial cluster development based on innovation system. Development of Industrial Policy in Indonesia In its development, the struggle of national industry at the end of 1960s has enthusiastic progress, either in its structure, diversification, and market orientation. The development is not detached from external development influencing industrial policy implemented. Chronologically,industrial development policy describe that in rehabilitation and stabilization periods 1967-1972, and periods when oil booming happened 1973-1981, the policy implemented is by supporting the development of import-substitution industry, for example textile and garment industry, paper, cement, or food and beverage. By the increase of oil price oil boom, the policy was prolonged and even intensified. Even though, in period of 1982-1996, price of oil had weakened. Therefore, industrial development policy was aligned by adding new mission developing export-oriented industry, and deepening and strengthening industrial structure. By economic crisis in 1998, the policy is saving industry in order to make it preserved through Industrial Revitalization Program. To define prospective industries, measurement of competitiveness was conducted, either from demand or supply side, to catch a glimpse of its capability to compete either in domestic area or overseas. The result of analysis for developed industry is grouped by two categories, included export oriented and domestic oriented industry, which then divided into four categories naturalresource-based industry, labor-intensive industry, capital-intensive industry, and technology intensive industry. In defining industrial building as what is dreamed, based on the present industry, those chosen industries are fulfilled by other industry which is chosen based on its potential. Figure 2 explains the development of industrial development policy in Indonesia. Future strategy of industrial development in Indonesia mentioned in KPIN adapts latest ideas at the moment related with globalization and 21st technology development in industrial development approach through cluster concept at context of building sustainable industrial competitiveness. Basically, industrial cluster is an exert of grouping the interrelating core industry, either supporting industries, related industries, supporting services, economy infrastructure, and related institution. Besides to reduce transportation and transaction costs,the benefit of this cluster is also to increase efficiency, create collective asset, and pursue the creation of innovation. In middle range term, increase of industrial competitiveness is conducted through building and developing prioritized industrial cluster, while in long term is pointed out in integration of cluster approach by managing the demand, and building core competence in each cluster. To make it to be reality, it needs to be supported by managing the network, either for local cluster or multinational corporation, and/or overseas cluster. KPIN also defines prioritized industries which will be stimulated in the future. The selection of the industry has purpose that the development process is more focused and easier to measure the criteria of success. Based on the formulation of national industry policy, the development of industrial cluster is aimed to achieve the followings Strengthening industries in the value chain includes core industries, related industries, and supporting industries by location advantages, which may stimulate comparative advantages to be a competitive advantage. Strengthening relationships among/between clusters in the same sectors or between/among clusters in the other sectors, all at once stimulate partnership between SMEs and large enterprises and other relevant interactive relationships, which then form industrial network and structure supporting increase of value-added through productivity improvement. Stimulating the growth of related industries which need supplies of the same raw material and supporting material, therefore it can strengthen partnership between/among prioritized, related, or supporting industries. Concept of Cluster Based on the studies by Alfred Marshal Isbashoiu, 2007, three conditions for setting an industrial cluster are identified the existence of a pool of adequate labor, the existence of specialized suppliers and the possibility of external spill-overs the rapid transfer of knowhow and ideas inside the cluster. In addition, Walter Isard Isbashoiu, 2007 expanded this concept using the export-oriented industries and its linkages to other industries in the region. According to him, these strong industrial linkages are indicating the existence of an industrial cluster. Porter popularized the concept of industrial clusters in his book The Competitive Advantages of Nations cited by Isobashoiu, 1997, in which he examines two types of clusters vertical clusters, made up of industries that are linked through buyer-seller relationships; horizontal clusters, that include industries which might share a common market for the products, use a common technology, labor force skills and similar resources. Many academics point out that regional clusters had their origins in particular local factor conditions, local demand, and the presence of a related industry. Based on different kinds of knowledge Ishobaoui, 2007, there are two types of competitive clusters techno clusters, which are high-technology oriented, well adapted to the knowledge economy; historic know-how-based clusters, which are based on more traditional activities that maintain their advantage in know-how over the years. Industrial cluster in Perpres No. 28/2008 regarding the National Industry Policy is defined as a group of core industry concentrated regionally or globally which relating and has social interaction each other dynamically, either by related industry in improving efficiency, creating collective asset, and encourage creation of innovation, so that it creates competitive advantage. Moreover, formulation of national industrial policy explain that cluster industry is industrial grouping which relating each other, either as core industry, supporting industry, or as related industry. Concerning with innovation, industrial cluster can be categorized in four groups Pavitt, 1984. They are science-based clusters, scale-intensive clusters, supplier dominated clusters, and specialized suppliers clusters. In sience-based clusters, access to basic research and government RD institution become important aspects in research activities. This type of cluster is patent intensive and need high level of RD. It tends to collaborate with government RD sector. This type of industry in this cluster is pharmaceutical industry. Scale-intensive clusters tend to build relationship with universities and technical insitution as research performer. Therefore companies are not conducting many research activities. Their innovative achievement depend on their ability to import and build science developed in other area. Industry in this cluster is food industry, and transportation industry. Supplier dominated clusters has tendency to import technology, especially capital goods and intermediate products. Innovation in this cluster is determined by interaction capability by supplier, e.g. in forestry and services industry. The last category is specialized suppliers clusters. This cluster is RD-based, and concern with product innovation. It generally interacting with either supplier or user, for example hardware and software industry. Development of Industrial Cluster based on Innovation System One of the main key as an effort to achieve sustainable industrial development is by competing through innovation and learning. This can be conducted through several ways Use the existing foreign technology and knowledge with domestic resources. Carry out learning to increase adoption capability, using, and improving technology obtained. Continuously repeating the three cycles. For this reason, UNIDO carefully examine industrial innovation and learning system as shown in Fig. 3. References 1 Isbasoiu, George-Marian, 2007, Industrial Clusters and Regional Development. The Case of Timisoara and Montebelluna. Presented at the Conference of European Regions Knowledge Based Innovation Network ERIK, Brussels, May 10-11th 2007. Industrial Cluster Project, 2005, Project to Create Manufacturing Industry in Tokai Region, http//www.cluster.gr.jp/en/Action/chubu1.html. Accessed on March, 5, 2009. 2 Mitsui, Itsutomo, 2003 Industrial cluster policies and regional development in the age of globalisation -Eastern and Western approaches and their differences. 30th ISBC in Singapore. OECD, 1999, Managing National Innovation Systems. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD. 3 Otsuka, Keijiro, 2007, Cluster- Based Based Industrial Development Industrial Development A View A View from East Asia. Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development FASID. 4 Patel, P. and Pavitt, K. 1994. National Innovation Systems Why They are Important, and How They Might be Measured and Compared. www.mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de. Accessed on March, 3, 2009. 5 Sonobe, Tetsushi, Hu, Dinghuan, and Keijiro Otsuka, 2006 Devel

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