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新科学和技术以及创新在印度的发展外文翻译-其他专业.doc

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新科学和技术以及创新在印度的发展外文翻译-其他专业.doc

中文3860字 毕业论文(设计)外文翻译 外文题目New Science, Technology and Innovation Developments In India 出 处 Supporting Science Technology Polices 作 者 PIKAY RICHARDSON 原文 Abstract This paper reviews the science and technology policies of India and how these have fashioned India’s technology capability over the years. It shows that while India has achieved enormous strides in the area of science, technology and innovation, inappropriate policies in the past have hampered the development of an effective national innovation system. The paper concludes by drawing lessons for the development of an EU-wide science and technology policy 2. Trends in STI Developments in India 2.2 Trends in India’s Science and Technology Policy It has long been recognized that investment in science and technology makes substantial contribution to economic growth in terms of higher growth rates of an economy’s total factor productivity Abramovitz, 1956, Denison 1962 and Solow, 1957, among others. In addition to direct returns, huge positive externalities have also been found to be associated with it Abramovitz, 1989. Taking cognisance of the importance of technology’s role in development, advanced countries nurture continuing development of science and technology and most developing countries adopt RD policies in the early phases of their development. Science and Technology policy constitutes an integral part of a nation’s overall industrial policy Barber and White, 1987. While the former shapes the pace and direction of technology development, the latter determines the nature of demand. This section reviews the evolution of Science and Technology policy in India since independence。 Science and Technology policy of any nation is carved within the background of overall industrial policy. If anything, ST policy is supposed not only to give meaning to, but more importantly, to ensure achievement of the goals of industrial policy. It is therefore the thrust and direction of industrial policy that determines the tenets of any ST policy, although it must be said that RD may lead to results that may also change the course of industrial policy. Even so, ST policy has almost always been driven by the goals of industrial development policy. This section therefore describes the development strategy adopted by the government in the various phases of development and analyses the accompanying ST policy. Two strands of ST policy have existed – policies related to technology transfer from abroad through formal modes such as FDI, technology licensing and capital goods imports and domestic technology generation policies. Having realized that the pursuit of autarkic economic policies in much of the post-independence period to 1990 was a mistake, India undertook sweeping reforms as a way of speeding economic growth and achieving faster integration into the world economy. Part of these reforms has been the re-enactment of a science and technology policy more suited to the achievement of the goals of building a prosperous nation. 3. Response to/Impact of Reforms 3.2.2 Global RD Centers Hirwani and Jain 1999 have shown that although market-oriented activities were more important to MNEs in most of the 1990s, technology oriented activities are growing in importance. Hitherto, MNEs had been emphasizing a strategy of customizing products for the Indian market and of obtaining cost-efficient manufacturing facilities in India. Increasingly, however, there has been a clear move towards obtaining access to high quality scientists, engineers and designers in India. Some RD centers set up in India by some MNEs conduct contract research for the corporate laboratories outside India. Prior to 1991, the establishment of such RD centers by MNEs was consciously lacking. Since India signed the GATT Agreement in 1993 and subsequently passed the Intellectual Property law in 1994, over 60 MNEs have set up RD centers in technology intensive industries, mostly to take advantage of the strong pool of highly-trained engineers and scientists. Before 1991, there were only two such centers in the country. Apart from the setting up of new centers in India to take advantage of the liberalized atmosphere, the raison d’tre and mode of operation of existing centers have also been changing by the new market environment. Some companies have completely restructured their RD centers in India, shifting the focus from developing products for Indian markets to making them centers of global excellence. Others have expanded their. operations and hired many Indian scientists and technologists. This is more evident in the areas of information and computer technology. Such centers conduct RD for worldwide operations. The availability of high quality labor has been a motivating factor in the establishment of centers by companies such as Astra, Unilever, GE and Software Development Centers of Texas Instruments, Oracle, Microsoft and others. Substantial RD presence has also been established in the areas of pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. 3.4 Commercial Orientation of Public Research Organizations India has a strong industrial research infrastructure, which was fostered in the early stages of its post-independence growth. While the supply-side was generously supported, the industrial research system, prior to liberalization, was mostly geared to import substitution Bowonder and Richardson, 2000. The publicly funded Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR and other bodies tended to be isolated entities with little or no links to industry. In such a protected environment, there was no need to benchmark their activities to those of global players. Also their activities were only marginally focused on commercialization. The last decade has seen many of these laboratories become more commercially oriented. They have been directing their efforts towards international quality RD. Two recent major policy thrusts have been a an increase in the quest for patenting in Europe and the USA, as a means of engendering a strong desire to undertake RD and to innovate and b an increase in the commercial orientation of industrial research, with a view to making these bodies less dependent on public budgetary support. 3.6 FDI Spill-over’s and Technological Capability Liberalization policies and the response by both foreign and Indian companies alike have had many spillovers that are valuable for India’s technological capability. The growth of the software industry has had wide-ranging impact on the economy. The demand for software imports and the setting up of foreign development centers have contributed to the rapid increase in compensation levels, estimated at an annual rate of 25 in the second half of the 1990s. Other benefits have included stock options and good employment opportunities, thereby slowing brain drain to some extent. Foreign participation has exposed Indian engineers and scientists to new technologies and made them more sensitive to the protection of intellectual property software IP piracy was estimated to have risen from 59 to 61 between 1999 and 2000 Krishnan, 2001. Another factor has been the sharp increase in the output of degree- and diploma awarding institutions. The number of institutions offering formal degree-level education in engineering more than doubled between 1990 and 2000, from 339 to 776. Student intake capacity also doubled with 80 rise in the science/engineering places. Although venture capital organizations started to emerge in India in 1986, the growth of technology-based ventures did not catch up. In the last decade, however, there has been a substantial rise in IT-based venture capital. Nigam 2001 records that venture capital investments reached 350 million in 2000, as against a figure of less than 5 million in 1995. A large chunk of this amount 70 was directed into the IT sector. Many new venture capital firms are being set up, either by Indian-based industrialists and young professionals or by Indians based overseas. Although recent studies Chandrasekhar and Basavarajappa, 2001; Mehta and Sama, 2001 show that there has been little change in RD intensity of Indian industry, there has been a clear shift toward increased product development and innovation Krishnan and Prabha, 1999. This has been accompanied by increased awareness of intellectual property IP rights and, by implication, the importance of patenting. According to the US Patent Office, of the ten India-based organizations which filed the largest number of US patents in the 1995-2000 period, three are Indian pharmaceutical companies. The CSIR has also been filing patents in India and the US, all this result of new outward-looking policies. 4. Science and Technology Policy in Relation to the Multilateral System India is a founder member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT 1947 and its successor, the World Trade Organisation WTO, which came into effect on January 1 1995, after the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. Indias participation is based on the need to ensure more stability and predictability in international trade with a view to achieving more trade and prosperity for itself and the other members of the WTO. The multilateral trading system administered by the WTO aims to bring about orderliness, transparency and predictability in global trade through reductions in tariffs, progressive removal of non-tariff barriers, elimination of trade-distorting measures and systems of values to serve as guidelines for national legislation to bring about uniformity in laws and regulations everywhere. The establishment of the WTO has created a forum for continuous negotiations to reconcile differing and oftentimes conflicting interests of members. Although there is unanimity in the provisions of International Trade theory that free trade enhances global welfare, nationalism and differing goals as well as the appropriation of the benefits of trade lead to many disagreements and conflicts within the global trading system. Conflicts arise between developed and developing countries as a result of differing developmental needs and goals and even between developed or developing country blocs. India strongly subscribes to the multilateral approach to trade relations and grants MFN treatment to all its trading partners, including even those, which are non-members of the WTO. Within the WTO, India has committed itself to ensuring that the sectors in which developing countries hold a comparative advantage are adequately opened up to international trade and also that the special Differential Treatment Provisions for developing countries under various WTO Agreements are translated into specific enforceable dispensations in order that developing countries are facilitated in their developmental efforts. 5. The Future of Science and Technology Policy in India India has achieved world-class excellence in a number of science-intensive sectors such as nuclear power, satellite communications and defense. Since nearly half of RD spending is incurred in theses sectors, the Government has been concerned to enhance the spin-offs from these investments as well as encourage technology transfers between these research centers and between the centers and the wider industry. India can also be described as truly scientifically-proficient in many other years. 6. Summary and Implications for EU-wide ST Policy The prosperity of any economy depends on the productivity of its economic assets. Many studies have shown the vital role technological innovation plays in engendering productivity growth and long-run economic growth, and in determining a nation’s standard of living. In a globalizing world economy, the link between innovative capacity and prosperity has grown ever tighter and a rapid rate of innovation is needed to drive productivity growth. Advanced countries are becoming increasingly labor-constrained. Maintaining economic growth will, therefore, demand a stepped-up rate of innovation, and perhaps, the importation of skilled labor from other countries, as has been witnessed in some countries in recent years. Economic development in developing countries will in a similar vein depend on a more efficient use of resources as well as stepped-up innovation. Like other countries, India in its quest to achieve industrialization and improve the quality of life of its people, has fostered an Industrial and ST policy since the early years of independence. Although it has achieved much progress in the area of science and technology, a policy of isolationism and a failure to develop an appropriate mix of the determinants of an effective NIS, has meant that today, India’s performance is much lower than would have been the case otherwise. The poor performance started in the late 1960s. In the protected regime that India went for, it could not build capacity to innovate and produce internationally competitive technologies. The process of liberalization that started in the 1980s and accelerated in the 1990s, however, put competitive pressures on Indian firms to modernize and upgrade their technologies. At the same time, many MNEs entered the Indian market via FDIs and technology investments. Several foreign owned and jointly-owned RD centers have been established. Indian organizations and institutions have been encouraged to become more commercial-orientated and outward looking. Other measures have included direct intervention in forging links between industry and universities and among firms, strengthening of existing infrastructure and the creation of new institutions that may have important ingredients in the innovation chain. 译文 新科学和技术以及创新在印度的发展 摘 要 本文回顾了印度的相关科学和技术的政策,以及这些政策在过去的一些时期内如何影响印度的科技能力。结果表示,印度在科技创新方面取得了?#27426;?#30340;成就,以及在不恰当的政策下,如何影响印度的创新体系的发展。该文章最后总结了欧盟地区国家科技发展的经验和教训。 二、印度科学技术政策的趋势 2.2 印度的科学和技术政策趋势 人们早已认识到对科学和技术方面的投资,在一个经济体的全部的生产要素有较高的增长率的条件下,对经济的增长会产生巨大的?#27605;住?#38500;了直接的回报外,与它有巨大的(积极地)相关联也同样被发现。考虑到科学技术在发展中的重要性,发达国家很自然的?#20013;?#22320;进行着科学和技术的发展,而大多数的发展中国?#20197;?#20182;们发展的早期阶段则采取研发的策略。科学和技术的政策,组成整个国家的工业政策中不可分割的一部分。?#27426;?#25216;术发展的步伐和方向的先前的形状,决定了自然的需求。本节介绍了自独立以来印度的科学和技术政策的演变。任何国家的科学和技术政策都会在整体工业政策的背景中体现出来。不管怎样,科技政策都应该不仅仅是被给出来,但更重要的是,以确保各项工业政策目标的实现。因此工业政策的推力以及方向的?#33539;ǎ?#20915;定了任何科学和技术政策的规定。尽管如此,但还是需要说明的是,研发也许会导致或许会改变工业政策的变化。因此,科学和技术几乎一直都被工业发展政策的目标所驱?#29486;?#21521;前发展。因此,本节介绍了政府在不同的发展阶段所采取的各种不同的发展策略,以及分析了伴随科学技术发展的政策。有两个科学技术的标准关于从国外FDI的技术转移的相关政策,技术许可和资本商?#26041;?#21475;和国内技术通常政策。当认识到在1990年间大多数的后独立的国家追求自给自足的经济政策是一个错误之后,印度开始着手大规模的改革,作为一种加速经济增长,进行最快的整合来融入到世界经济之中去的方法。部分的改革成为繁荣科学和技术的策略,使之更加适合去实现建设一个富强国家的目标。 三、对改革的反应或影响 3.2 全球研发中心 Hirwani 和Janin 1999 年 显示虽然在 1990 年代的大部分以市场为导向的活动,更重要的是多国企业,技术导向型活动也变得日益重要。到目前为止,多国企业已强调了一种针对印度市场和获得成本高效的生产设施的自定义产品的战略。更多的是,尽管如此,在印度有一个比较明显的举动,那就是去获得高?#20998;?#30340;科学技术,工程师和设计师。由跨国公司在印度以外建立的一些研发中心与印度进行签订合同的研究。追溯到1991年,由跨

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