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新科學和技術以及創新在印度的發展外文翻譯-其他專業.doc

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新科學和技術以及創新在印度的發展外文翻譯-其他專業.doc

中文3860字 畢業論文(設計)外文翻譯 外文題目New Science, Technology and Innovation Developments In India 出 處 Supporting Science Technology Polices 作 者 PIKAY RICHARDSON 原文 Abstract This paper reviews the science and technology policies of India and how these have fashioned India’s technology capability over the years. It shows that while India has achieved enormous strides in the area of science, technology and innovation, inappropriate policies in the past have hampered the development of an effective national innovation system. The paper concludes by drawing lessons for the development of an EU-wide science and technology policy 2. Trends in STI Developments in India 2.2 Trends in India’s Science and Technology Policy It has long been recognized that investment in science and technology makes substantial contribution to economic growth in terms of higher growth rates of an economy’s total factor productivity Abramovitz, 1956, Denison 1962 and Solow, 1957, among others. In addition to direct returns, huge positive externalities have also been found to be associated with it Abramovitz, 1989. Taking cognisance of the importance of technology’s role in development, advanced countries nurture continuing development of science and technology and most developing countries adopt RD policies in the early phases of their development. Science and Technology policy constitutes an integral part of a nation’s overall industrial policy Barber and White, 1987. While the former shapes the pace and direction of technology development, the latter determines the nature of demand. This section reviews the evolution of Science and Technology policy in India since independence。 Science and Technology policy of any nation is carved within the background of overall industrial policy. If anything, ST policy is supposed not only to give meaning to, but more importantly, to ensure achievement of the goals of industrial policy. It is therefore the thrust and direction of industrial policy that determines the tenets of any ST policy, although it must be said that RD may lead to results that may also change the course of industrial policy. Even so, ST policy has almost always been driven by the goals of industrial development policy. This section therefore describes the development strategy adopted by the government in the various phases of development and analyses the accompanying ST policy. Two strands of ST policy have existed – policies related to technology transfer from abroad through formal modes such as FDI, technology licensing and capital goods imports and domestic technology generation policies. Having realized that the pursuit of autarkic economic policies in much of the post-independence period to 1990 was a mistake, India undertook sweeping reforms as a way of speeding economic growth and achieving faster integration into the world economy. Part of these reforms has been the re-enactment of a science and technology policy more suited to the achievement of the goals of building a prosperous nation. 3. Response to/Impact of Reforms 3.2.2 Global RD Centers Hirwani and Jain 1999 have shown that although market-oriented activities were more important to MNEs in most of the 1990s, technology oriented activities are growing in importance. Hitherto, MNEs had been emphasizing a strategy of customizing products for the Indian market and of obtaining cost-efficient manufacturing facilities in India. Increasingly, however, there has been a clear move towards obtaining access to high quality scientists, engineers and designers in India. Some RD centers set up in India by some MNEs conduct contract research for the corporate laboratories outside India. Prior to 1991, the establishment of such RD centers by MNEs was consciously lacking. Since India signed the GATT Agreement in 1993 and subsequently passed the Intellectual Property law in 1994, over 60 MNEs have set up RD centers in technology intensive industries, mostly to take advantage of the strong pool of highly-trained engineers and scientists. Before 1991, there were only two such centers in the country. Apart from the setting up of new centers in India to take advantage of the liberalized atmosphere, the raison d’tre and mode of operation of existing centers have also been changing by the new market environment. Some companies have completely restructured their RD centers in India, shifting the focus from developing products for Indian markets to making them centers of global excellence. Others have expanded their. operations and hired many Indian scientists and technologists. This is more evident in the areas of information and computer technology. Such centers conduct RD for worldwide operations. The availability of high quality labor has been a motivating factor in the establishment of centers by companies such as Astra, Unilever, GE and Software Development Centers of Texas Instruments, Oracle, Microsoft and others. Substantial RD presence has also been established in the areas of pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. 3.4 Commercial Orientation of Public Research Organizations India has a strong industrial research infrastructure, which was fostered in the early stages of its post-independence growth. While the supply-side was generously supported, the industrial research system, prior to liberalization, was mostly geared to import substitution Bowonder and Richardson, 2000. The publicly funded Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR and other bodies tended to be isolated entities with little or no links to industry. In such a protected environment, there was no need to benchmark their activities to those of global players. Also their activities were only marginally focused on commercialization. The last decade has seen many of these laboratories become more commercially oriented. They have been directing their efforts towards international quality RD. Two recent major policy thrusts have been a an increase in the quest for patenting in Europe and the USA, as a means of engendering a strong desire to undertake RD and to innovate and b an increase in the commercial orientation of industrial research, with a view to making these bodies less dependent on public budgetary support. 3.6 FDI Spill-over’s and Technological Capability Liberalization policies and the response by both foreign and Indian companies alike have had many spillovers that are valuable for India’s technological capability. The growth of the software industry has had wide-ranging impact on the economy. The demand for software imports and the setting up of foreign development centers have contributed to the rapid increase in compensation levels, estimated at an annual rate of 25 in the second half of the 1990s. Other benefits have included stock options and good employment opportunities, thereby slowing brain drain to some extent. Foreign participation has exposed Indian engineers and scientists to new technologies and made them more sensitive to the protection of intellectual property software IP piracy was estimated to have risen from 59 to 61 between 1999 and 2000 Krishnan, 2001. Another factor has been the sharp increase in the output of degree- and diploma awarding institutions. The number of institutions offering formal degree-level education in engineering more than doubled between 1990 and 2000, from 339 to 776. Student intake capacity also doubled with 80 rise in the science/engineering places. Although venture capital organizations started to emerge in India in 1986, the growth of technology-based ventures did not catch up. In the last decade, however, there has been a substantial rise in IT-based venture capital. Nigam 2001 records that venture capital investments reached 350 million in 2000, as against a figure of less than 5 million in 1995. A large chunk of this amount 70 was directed into the IT sector. Many new venture capital firms are being set up, either by Indian-based industrialists and young professionals or by Indians based overseas. Although recent studies Chandrasekhar and Basavarajappa, 2001; Mehta and Sama, 2001 show that there has been little change in RD intensity of Indian industry, there has been a clear shift toward increased product development and innovation Krishnan and Prabha, 1999. This has been accompanied by increased awareness of intellectual property IP rights and, by implication, the importance of patenting. According to the US Patent Office, of the ten India-based organizations which filed the largest number of US patents in the 1995-2000 period, three are Indian pharmaceutical companies. The CSIR has also been filing patents in India and the US, all this result of new outward-looking policies. 4. Science and Technology Policy in Relation to the Multilateral System India is a founder member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT 1947 and its successor, the World Trade Organisation WTO, which came into effect on January 1 1995, after the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. Indias participation is based on the need to ensure more stability and predictability in international trade with a view to achieving more trade and prosperity for itself and the other members of the WTO. The multilateral trading system administered by the WTO aims to bring about orderliness, transparency and predictability in global trade through reductions in tariffs, progressive removal of non-tariff barriers, elimination of trade-distorting measures and systems of values to serve as guidelines for national legislation to bring about uniformity in laws and regulations everywhere. The establishment of the WTO has created a forum for continuous negotiations to reconcile differing and oftentimes conflicting interests of members. Although there is unanimity in the provisions of International Trade theory that free trade enhances global welfare, nationalism and differing goals as well as the appropriation of the benefits of trade lead to many disagreements and conflicts within the global trading system. Conflicts arise between developed and developing countries as a result of differing developmental needs and goals and even between developed or developing country blocs. India strongly subscribes to the multilateral approach to trade relations and grants MFN treatment to all its trading partners, including even those, which are non-members of the WTO. Within the WTO, India has committed itself to ensuring that the sectors in which developing countries hold a comparative advantage are adequately opened up to international trade and also that the special Differential Treatment Provisions for developing countries under various WTO Agreements are translated into specific enforceable dispensations in order that developing countries are facilitated in their developmental efforts. 5. The Future of Science and Technology Policy in India India has achieved world-class excellence in a number of science-intensive sectors such as nuclear power, satellite communications and defense. Since nearly half of RD spending is incurred in theses sectors, the Government has been concerned to enhance the spin-offs from these investments as well as encourage technology transfers between these research centers and between the centers and the wider industry. India can also be described as truly scientifically-proficient in many other years. 6. Summary and Implications for EU-wide ST Policy The prosperity of any economy depends on the productivity of its economic assets. Many studies have shown the vital role technological innovation plays in engendering productivity growth and long-run economic growth, and in determining a nation’s standard of living. In a globalizing world economy, the link between innovative capacity and prosperity has grown ever tighter and a rapid rate of innovation is needed to drive productivity growth. Advanced countries are becoming increasingly labor-constrained. Maintaining economic growth will, therefore, demand a stepped-up rate of innovation, and perhaps, the importation of skilled labor from other countries, as has been witnessed in some countries in recent years. Economic development in developing countries will in a similar vein depend on a more efficient use of resources as well as stepped-up innovation. Like other countries, India in its quest to achieve industrialization and improve the quality of life of its people, has fostered an Industrial and ST policy since the early years of independence. Although it has achieved much progress in the area of science and technology, a policy of isolationism and a failure to develop an appropriate mix of the determinants of an effective NIS, has meant that today, India’s performance is much lower than would have been the case otherwise. The poor performance started in the late 1960s. In the protected regime that India went for, it could not build capacity to innovate and produce internationally competitive technologies. The process of liberalization that started in the 1980s and accelerated in the 1990s, however, put competitive pressures on Indian firms to modernize and upgrade their technologies. At the same time, many MNEs entered the Indian market via FDIs and technology investments. Several foreign owned and jointly-owned RD centers have been established. Indian organizations and institutions have been encouraged to become more commercial-orientated and outward looking. Other measures have included direct intervention in forging links between industry and universities and among firms, strengthening of existing infrastructure and the creation of new institutions that may have important ingredients in the innovation chain. 譯文 新科學和技術以及創新在印度的發展 摘 要 本文回顧了印度的相關科學和技術的政策,以及這些政策在過去的一些時期內如何影響印度的科技能力。結果表示,印度在科技創新方面取得了一定的成就,以及在不恰當的政策下,如何影響印度的創新體系的發展。該文章最后總結了歐盟地區國家科技發展的經驗和教訓。 二、印度科學技術政策的趨勢 2.2 印度的科學和技術政策趨勢 人們早已認識到對科學和技術方面的投資,在一個經濟體的全部的生產要素有較高的增長率的條件下,對經濟的增長會產生巨大的貢獻。除了直接的回報外,與它有巨大的(積極地)相關聯也同樣被發現。考慮到科學技術在發展中的重要性,發達國家很自然的持續地進行著科學和技術的發展,而大多數的發展中國家在他們發展的早期階段則采取研發的策略。科學和技術的政策,組成整個國家的工業政策中不可分割的一部分。然而技術發展的步伐和方向的先前的形狀,決定了自然的需求。本節介紹了自獨立以來印度的科學和技術政策的演變。任何國家的科學和技術政策都會在整體工業政策的背景中體現出來。不管怎樣,科技政策都應該不僅僅是被給出來,但更重要的是,以確保各項工業政策目標的實現。因此工業政策的推力以及方向的確定,決定了任何科學和技術政策的規定。盡管如此,但還是需要說明的是,研發也許會導致或許會改變工業政策的變化。因此,科學和技術幾乎一直都被工業發展政策的目標所驅趕著向前發展。因此,本節介紹了政府在不同的發展階段所采取的各種不同的發展策略,以及分析了伴隨科學技術發展的政策。有兩個科學技術的標準關于從國外FDI的技術轉移的相關政策,技術許可和資本商品進口和國內技術通常政策。當認識到在1990年間大多數的后獨立的國家追求自給自足的經濟政策是一個錯誤之后,印度開始著手大規模的改革,作為一種加速經濟增長,進行最快的整合來融入到世界經濟之中去的方法。部分的改革成為繁榮科學和技術的策略,使之更加適合去實現建設一個富強國家的目標。 三、對改革的反應或影響 3.2 全球研發中心 Hirwani 和Janin 1999 年 顯示雖然在 1990 年代的大部分以市場為導向的活動,更重要的是多國企業,技術導向型活動也變得日益重要。到目前為止,多國企業已強調了一種針對印度市場和獲得成本高效的生產設施的自定義產品的戰略。更多的是,盡管如此,在印度有一個比較明顯的舉動,那就是去獲得高品質的科學技術,工程師和設計師。由跨國公司在印度以外建立的一些研發中心與印度進行簽訂合同的研究。追溯到1991年,由跨

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