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外文翻譯----21世紀建筑設計發展趨向-建筑結構.doc

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外文翻譯----21世紀建筑設計發展趨向-建筑結構.doc

外 文 翻 譯 21st century architectural design development trend The 21st century arrivals enable the people to change over to the information age from the industry time, Had the architecture industry authority once to say The 21st century high consumptions return the nature, Returns the native soil. May summarize on its reason for following several points 1 Should walk the passenger train study development architectural design path Concrete is when carries on the architectural design first must study the ecological environment condition, The consideration solves good and the peripheral environment coordination, Solves the natural energy source use, Natural material reasonable use. Natural lighting illumination design, Internal spatial physics performance adjustment design, Construction decoration, Decoration, In the room designs the scenery possible multi-use natural element and the natural ability and wisdom, Creates the nature plain life working conditions, The building should reduce the energy consumption as far as possible, Development resource and material regeneration use. The concept repairs the house according to “the green building materials”, changes the people extant common custom aesthetic standard judgment standard not to do the morbid state space, does not do the transition decoration, reduces the eye pollution, reduces the manpower, physical resource abusiveness with the waste, causes the building to draw close to the nature, enables the source use and the landscape creation all achieves the new altitude. 2 Will complete diligently face the future design The architectural design should have the material function and the energetic function dual character, designs in satisfies the material function in the foundation to satisfy the energetic function more importantly the request, must create the style, the ideal condition and the appeal satisfies peoples esthetic request, the image is succinct, the modelling is kind, the economy is transparent, the function is diverse, the material nature, non-toxic harmless and renewability as well as the detailing must achieve enters carefully micro only then can receive peoples welcome. The 21st century architectural designs are a major problem, its development direction mainly has following several aspects 1. Should walk the sustainable development architectural design path The 21st century are the information age, should be the ecology civilized times. The humanity utilizes the high new technology, the exploration subsistence production and the living conditions sustainable development pattern, acknowledges the principle according to the international society to carry on the design. ① To the local characteristic which involves, the localization understood that, takes the place the cultural vein; ② Using technical public consciousness, the union construction function request, uses the simple appropriate technology; ③ The setting up building material implication energy and circulation use consciousness, uses the renewable local characteristic building material in the most wide range, avoids using the high temperature energy, the destruction environment, produces the waste as well as has the radioactive building material, the questionnaire uses the old building material and the component; ④ In view of the local climatic conditions, use do not move the type energy strategy, applies the renewable energy as far as possible; ⑤ Consummates the construction space use the flexibility, in order to reduced construction amount of space occupied. Will construct the resources which will need to fall few to; ⑥ In the reduced construction process to the environment harm, avoids the environment the destruction, the resources waste as well as the building materials waste; 2. Heavy structure systems are going by the portal frame construction primarily Well known at present massive had the housing mixes the structure by the brick primarily, this kind of building structure system has the very many shortcoming like anti-knocking energy balance, the gross altitude is restricted construction, the mechanized degree enhances with difficulty, the work requirement is big, the construction quality guaranteed with difficulty. After the housing uses the portal frame construction is advantageous in the new wall material promoted application, enhanced the housing earthquake resistance performance, and may provide the free division for the inhabitant the space, the rich housing vertical surface modelling, the useable area coefficient also may enhance the dead weight, mixes the structure compared to the brick light, the unit area construction cost and the brick mixes the structure to be impartial, thus it can be seen, the portal frame construction is a housing in load-bearing member system big development. 3. Housing lives are going the big extension, the ultra durable housing to be going to appear massively At present, the housing service life according to its design proposal is generally about 50 years, down to the people the lifelong savings purchase a house with several dozens years, after use must discard, this kind of realistic phenomenon really was a little too has been cruel, therefore the people very urgent request enhanced the housing the durability, now the ultra durable concrete research is on the rise, down to in the near future will enable the concrete the durability to amount to hopefully for several hundred years over a thousand years, after the housing used the portal frame construction, thus might use the ultra durable concrete big to enhance the housing the durability, realized us to have the ultra durable housing dream, its remarkable the economic efficiency and the social efficiency are self-evident. 4. Construction space and time continuous nature The concern nature shows loving care for human itself, in the true sense “humanist” lies in this. Therefore, “humanist” the residential building has quite a part is emphasized its natural aspect the factor, initiates it by its spontaneous combustibility in the space and time circulation extension, then becomes a whole, causes in the building life cycle life-cycle constitution design work an extremely important factor. In the residential building the space and time continuous nature, is the request in the housing creation, in under the deference natural factor premise, draws the nutrient from the traditional housing shape, the extraction essential factor, the union present age housing science and technology characteristic and the housing demand, the foundation reappearance constructs the region space culture characteristic, seeks the residential building the individuality expression. In this kind of extension form traditional inhabitant model essential factor utilization modern architecture language innovation reappearance, its reappearance may be partial or completely, visible or invisible, may have both at the same time, the goal lies in for a traditional housing form extension and the survival space, and causes it complements one another with the time synchronization and the traditional housing civilization. 5. Residential building space and time integrity “Humanist” the residential building, the space and time continuous nature enable it to have some kind to be lower than the construction space culture the special characteristic, has realized the resistance construction space culture innovation reappearance, has enriched the current quite identical housing pattern. However, only has the space and time continuous nature, cannot conform to modern peoples requirement. Therefore, but also must consider its space and time the integrity. After has completed human nature spatial and the natural spatial reasonable union, will have to suit the modernization social development humanity own life style some essential factors to consider among, will mainly include the residential building comfortableness, the compatibility, the ecology, informedness, cultural property, intelligence and so on. ①Residential building comfortableness The residential building essence is serves for the human, first must speak comfortableness, in other words, the residential building must seek one kind in to conform to the purchase area, in the household foundation, enables various functions space to have the reasonable effective arrangement, takes their proper place, the district is clear about, and enable various functions the space to have the poetic sentiment criterion, the proportion, the convenient furniture arrangement and humans activity, simultaneously needs to guarantee various functions space the relative privacy. In order to satisfy the indoor environment quality, various functions space wants the natural lighting to be sufficient, ventilates good, the utilization ratio is high, and manifests certain artistry and advancing. Regarding exterior spatial environment, the space which the inhabitant associates founds also is the housing comfortable manifests importantly, should make every effort the original life to integrate, took the inhabitant survival environment the important constituent, the plan wants the structure bright, the vivid once the key link is understood everything falls in place, the community to design must many kinds of encircle gathers, changes changeable private dense, half private dense space, the coordination like one, the square, the green space, the sketch, constitution unification landscapes and so on insightful link porch, achieve safely tranquil, warm favor the contact. ② Residential building compatibility Mainly displays in the multiplicity and the variable two aspects, the multiplicity But as a result of the housing market demand multiplicity, the housing development construction unit must avoid “the rich and poor are all suitable” the sole project having to have certain special, suits many kinds of goal community, entrusts with personalized the project, satisfies day by day the diverse market demand, the variability As a result of the function multiplicity and the technical feasibility, enables the housing space nimbly invariable to realize, its variability is generally take “the household” as the designing department, finalizes stereotypic designs and so on kitchen health according to basic, the room part uses the active type room partition nimble separation, namely each household plane surrounding protection structure is invariable, pipeline basic fixed motionless, the hall room partition continues nimbly according to certain modulus, divides the household wall to be possible to fix, but also may adopt cancels the minute household wall to act according to the actual purchase demand choices to sell the building way, according to the above, in inhabitants room arranges may each its energy, each according to his need, the design arranges one to have warmly The individuality family, so naturally enhanced the housing construction use efficiency, causes the residential building easy to transform has the longer service life. ③ Housing ecotype Now lives in the metropolis people all longed for returns the nature, hopes more and the nature contact, but the residential building only has the green not to be able to say it has the ecotype, the housing ecotype is take the green as the foundation covering ecology environmental protection, sustainable development and so on many kinds of ideas. First speaking of green itself, must achieve the national related standard, and has the integrity to include the design, the construction, the estate management and so on many link life cycle appraisal, also must unify with all city overall environment quality. The ecology architectural design should have following several aspects characteristic 1. The respect designs in the land sector the land, Environment, and vegetations characteristic, acting as circumstances permit. 2. Whole, The comprehensive consideration designs the region interior and the external environment relations. 3. Emphasizes the human and the environment harmonious coexistence, Inalienable. 4. Design process multi-disciplinary comprehensive nature In order to realize these characteristics, Mainly has following several effective ways 1 Development underground space Solves the city to use the tense way to have two kinds, One, to suburb development, Can cause the cultivated area reduction, Ecological equilibrium destruction, Urbanized degree increase. Two, to upper air development, Often causes the population density increase, The air pollution is serious, The transportation is more crowded, The development use underground space has the superiority which is unable to compare 1. Saves the land resource, Reduction to city soil destruction, Reduces in the ground the housing, Transportation production and life service, Social activity mutual disturbance. 2. Saves the energy, The soil has the heat insulation and the regeneration dual effects. According to measured the underground construction may save heat energy 2580 compared to the ground building. 3. Is advantageous in the ecological equilibrium, Does not destroy the vegetation, Does not invade the farmland, and Is advantageous in the beautified environment, Purification air, Improvement microclimate. 4. Dustproof, Anti-poison. Under ground space non-air pollution. 5. Favors the storage vegetables, Fruit, Grain. Underground environment relative humidity being suitable, Avoids the rat damage insect pest. 6. The earthquake resistance performance is good, The maintenance cost is low. 2 Matter energy circulation use Along with technical progress, the humanity already had the quite big progress to the renewable energy development use, each kind of ecology housing, Low energy consumption housing massive constructing. The future house construction mainly will have following two forms to the energy use 1. Can naturally the solar energy, The wind can wait the direct use directly uses each kind of technical installment like windmill, Solar energy collecting device, Solar energy, The wind can transform the power origin which lives for the people. 2. Solar energy indirect use - - biological energy circulation In September, 1991, American advantage Sang Neosho the desert carries on biosphere number plan, eight people have survived for 2 years with more than 3800 species in a building. In the room has the bog which micro shrinks,Sea,Prairie,Desert,Ecosystem and so on tropical rain forest,Air,Water,The nutrients will circulate in among, Obtains the biological energy circulation the experience, The biological energy circulation simple form is the three-dimensional planter, may beautify the environment through the afforestation, the use space, the gain in yield, simultaneously may get up heat preservation saving water, the purification air, effects and so on adjustment room climate 3 Enhancement afforestation design Somet

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