<acronym id="6i0ao"><small id="6i0ao"></small></acronym>
<acronym id="6i0ao"><center id="6i0ao"></center></acronym>
歡迎來到文庫吧! | 幫助中心 堅持夢想,走向成功!
文庫吧
首頁 文庫吧 > 資源分類 > DOC文檔下載
 

外文翻譯-工程造價管理淺論(中英文對照)-工程造價.doc

  • 資源ID:7465       資源大小:135.50KB        全文頁數:26頁
  • 資源格式: DOC        下載權限:游客/注冊會員/VIP會員    下載費用:10
游客快捷下載 游客一鍵下載
會員登錄下載
下載資源需要10元   |   0.1元文檔測試下載

支付方式: 微信支付    支付寶   
驗證碼:   換一換

      加入VIP,下載共享資源
 
友情提示
2、PDF文件下載后,可能會被瀏覽器默認打開,此種情況可以點擊瀏覽器菜單,保存網頁到桌面,既可以正常下載了。
3、本站不支持迅雷下載,請使用電腦自帶的IE瀏覽器,或者360瀏覽器、谷歌瀏覽器下載即可。
4、本站資源下載后的文檔和圖紙-無水印,預覽文檔經過壓縮,下載后原文更清晰   

外文翻譯-工程造價管理淺論(中英文對照)-工程造價.doc

the stage of the project cost management the stage of the project cost management AbstractProject cost management is the basic contents to determine reasonable and effective control of the project cost. Described the current stage of the project cost management situation on the strengthening of the various stages of construction cost management of the importance of and raised a number of key initiatives. Keywordsproject cost;the current stage of the project;project cost management; Even under the WTO and Chinas accession to the world community, Chinas construction industry how to effectively control construction cost of the construction and management of an important component part. However, the current budget for the construction projects - estimate, budget, Super budget accounts for the super three is still widespread and that eventually led to a serious loss of control of project investment. Project cost management is the basic contents to determine reasonable and effective control of the project cost. As the project cost to the project runs through the entire process, stage by stage can be divided into Investment Decision stage, the design and implementation phases. The so-called Project Cost effective control is the optimization of the construction plans and design programs on the basis of in the building process at all stages, use of certain methods and measures to reduce the cost of the projects have a reasonable control on the scope and cost of the approved limits. Engineering and cost management work of the current status of project cost management system was formed in the 1950s, 1980s perfect together. Performance of the country and directly involved in the management of economic activities. Provisions in the design stage to different estimates or budget preparation as well as government; Nothing relevant departments to formulate a budget, content, methods and approval, the budget will provide the fixed cost of equipment and materials and fixed price of the budget preparation, approval, management authority, and so on. With the historical process, after recovery, reform and development, formed a relatively complete budget estimate of quota management system. However, as the socialist market economic development, the systems many problems have also exposed. Generally speaking, the budget estimate is based on direct participation in the management of national economic activity as a precondition. Enterprise is not the actual economic entities. Due to the characteristics of the planned economy,and,at the time under the conditions of productivity,will inevitably become a shortage in the economy. In severe shortage of commodities under the conditions, as long as a certain level of investment, will be certain outputs. In this environment, the project planning and technical argumentation there can be no economic analysis. State control of the project cost constitute key factors equipment and materials prices, wages and taxes of artificial distribution. In this relatively stable economic environment, the budget estimate for the system approved project cost, help the government to carry out investment plans to play a major role. As the socialist market economic system established, requires us to predict project investment and control. In recent years, international investment project developed to the requirements of prior pre-control and in the middle of control. China, the traditional practice in an objective light on the cause decision-making, implementation heavy, light the economy and technology, First, the consequences of victimization, Due to the technical personnel of the project technical and economic concepts and a weak awareness of cost control, cost management makes the quality difficult to raise. Project Cost control is difficult to achieve long-term goals. Second, the various stages of the project management view of the above circumstances, My first academia in the 1980s made the whole process of cost management and control concept, building departments will study the feasibility of projects and the budgets and final accounts to two extended at the request of the corresponding regulations put our cost management concepts and methods referred to a new height. Our task now is to be modern and cost management in line with Chinas national conditions of the market economy system goal, learn from the advanced experience of the developed countries, and establish sound market economic laws of project cost management system, efforts to increase the project cost levels. An investment decision-making phase of the project cost management construction project investment decision-making stage is proposed project proposals; conduct a feasibility study to determine investment estimation and the final preparation of design task. At this stage, the projects technical and economic decision-making, of the construction project cost of the project after the completion of the economic benefits have a decisive influence, The construction cost is an important stage control. Chinas current stage of the project cost for the project management for the purpose of clearing price, and focusing only on the construction process of cost control, neglected before the start of the project investment decision-making stage of cost control. Investment decision-making phase of investment projects is estimated an important basis for decision-making. It has a direct impact on national economic and financial analysis of the results of the reliability and accuracy. Because of this phase is the preliminary work of projects, the information cannot be fully, comparable works more or less that information accumulated relatively small, estimated inadequate and unscientific. Makes project cost management and cost workers is difficult at this stage do something. The various stages of the project cost control in the decision-making phase project cost control. Right project planning phase of the cost, many owners have the wrong understanding that the lower the cost the better. Cost control is not a unilateral issue, and should be a number of factors, a combination of practical, comprehensive consideration. The construction project investment decision-making stage, the projects technical and economic decision-making, Cost of the project after the completion of the project and the economic benefits, with a decisive role in project cost control is an important stage, rationally define and control the direction of the project cost of accurate positioning and building Optimization guiding role. In the decision-making phase of the most important is to do a good job feasibility study, the work is done well, returns on investment and can form a good proportion. Otherwise, invest more, less effective, resulting in loss of control and waste of investment. At present, some of the projects planned the owners of departure from the subjective desires of a feasibility study on the lack of scientific proof. Feasibility Study untrue, false or engineering functions obtaining the approval of their superiors, actually put into the feasibility study will be awarded in the study for the project after the smooth functioning buried a lot of hidden problems, lead to insufficient follow-up funds for the project and had to extend the time limit so that the project could not have planned the use of cost-effective, even become hopeless completion of the beard works. Therefore, in order to phase in the investment decision-making effectively control construction costs, we must do the following aspects Implementationof the construction project and corporate accountability, Construction of the project from planning to implementation of the entire process and the use of the funds to repay responsibilities to the people. in addition to establishing a legal system and the project supervision matching mechanism by the departments in charge of the industry and supervision departments for setting up a monitoring group to oversee the use of funds. A realistic approach to market analysis, to avoid the blindness of the project decision-making, reduces and reduces investment risk. Fully consider building projects in the future market competitiveness, design task more scientific and reliability. Capital financing must have a formal commitment document, the parties must do investment funds in place, and funds must have documents to ensure that the project can be approved after the scheduled implementation. To the various loan conditions should be carefully analyzed to minimize the burden of interest and repayment pressure. To strengthen the engineering geology, hydrology, geology and land, water, electricity, transport, environmental projects such as external conditions for the work of depth to make the investment estimate there are sufficient grounds. Taking extensive investigation and research, comparison of similar projects, seriously functional analysis, multi-program comparison and choice. After full technical appraisal and economic evaluation, and the final technologically advanced, functional and reliable. Reasonable economic projects, thus calculate a more accurate and realistic estimation of the amount of investment, so that the project cost from the start positioning in a more reasonable level. The design phase of the project cost control for a long time, Chinas building control very effective, - investment projects is not uncommon, this will affect owners of investment returns, it adds to the owners and within budget, as well as difficulties in fund owners, the impact on the future management or the owners make payments in arrears, and so on. Hence, the control of the project cost is of great significance, however the project cost is the primary means of control design, Currently most of the property owners in the design stage seldom works on cost control, and they found that the cost of the design will not have a great impact, it is wrong, on the contrary, Design phase of the project cost control is the most important step. Because it determines engineering design, construction methods, materials and equipment types, models of the project cost is of critical significance, design optimization phase of the program or minor changes, project cost will have a significant impact, Design phase of the project cost control of the total project cost of 70. Following is how to control the project from design to create the Law As the owners must design, the design selected on the quality level is a direct impact on the quality of product design level, and the design quality products in the level of direct influence on the pricing of the works. Different design units on the same project design are different. the same item of different design institute works between certain aspects of the project cost on the existence of differences between, We assume that with a design from two different design institute to design, Construction plans after the completion of a requested advisory unit cost to do the budget, certainly different design institute the total cost of the project is absolutely not the same, and most of the difference between the two over 10 even more than 30, and not necessarily high cost than the design of low cost, and good design is often low cost, We all know that different people have different design styles and different levels, the design works naturally, therefore chosen to design units is the control on the first step. Through tender to select the design of the units is a good method, the tender documents to elaborate on this particular aspect of the requirements, cost control targets, and so on. Otherwise, in the subsequent design process design units will put an increase in the cost of the design requirements; through tendering the project design into the market, compared to select the best design units. Promoting the design bidding and design optimization campaign mode design units assessed by experts using scientific group France, in accordance with applicable, economic, aesthetic principles and advanced technology, reasonable structure to meet building energy efficiency and environmental requirements, comprehensive assessment of the merits of the program design, selection of the best determination of the successful program. Successful investment program estimated to be close to the general construction project scope of investment. This means two design contracts will help design the program of choice and competition to ensure that the selected design advanced technology, unique novelty, adaptability, as well as to control the cost of the project. Design units should strive to improve their quality of the project design clever idea, contemporary reducing the project cost on to rack their brains to improve design quality, strive to put the design phase of the project cost control approval of the investment ceiling. Strengthening the design stage of the design phase to strengthen supervision of the Commissioner to determine a reasonable design, mature technology, reduction in the construction phase major design changes and changes in the program, in the effective control of the project cost will play a role. 1 to the design of the project if the project supervision to get involved, excluding unfavorable factors may generally is excluded from the 80 errors. In the entire process of building cost control, construction began at best to save and invest 20, the key lies in the construction phase of the identification and control costs. Supervision of the design phase include Design Institute under the design drawings and notes help owners deal with different design options for the economy, capital expenditure to develop the preliminary estimates, to ensure that the investment can be most effectively utilized. With the owners of the Commissioner include According to the Design Institute to provide design drawings and notes to help owners deal with different design options for the economy, capital expenditures to develop the preliminary plan to ensure that investment can be most effectively used; with the owners of different design options, the need to calculate their own materials and equipment to conduct a cost analysis and study, to the design staff costs, to assist them in the investment limit within limits designed to save and invest. To seek a one-time small investment and economic good design program made the most rational economic indicators. Design actively promote the so-called cap limit design, even with the approval of the design task and investment estimates, guarantee the functional requirements of the premise. The preliminary design and control budget, according to the preliminary approval of the total budget for the design and construction design control. Limits, and every one professional, each of whom have a design threshold of a target. In the design process, designers should pr

注意事項

本文(外文翻譯-工程造價管理淺論(中英文對照)-工程造價.doc)為本站會員(天工一號)主動上傳,文庫吧僅提供信息存儲空間,僅對用戶上傳內容的表現方式做保護處理,對上載內容本身不做任何修改或編輯。 若此文所含內容侵犯了您的版權或隱私,請立即通知文庫吧(發送郵件至[email protected]或直接QQ聯系客服),我們立即給予刪除!

溫馨提示:如果因為網速或其他原因下載失敗請重新下載,重復下載不扣分。




關于我們 - 網站聲明 - 網站地圖 - 資源地圖 - 友情鏈接 - 網站客服點擊這里,給文庫吧發消息,QQ:1548881058 - 聯系我們

[email protected] 2015-2021 wenkub網站版權所有
經營許可證編號:鄂ICP備17016276 

收起
展開
北京pk10双面盘预测
<acronym id="6i0ao"><small id="6i0ao"></small></acronym>
<acronym id="6i0ao"><center id="6i0ao"></center></acronym>
<acronym id="6i0ao"><small id="6i0ao"></small></acronym>
<acronym id="6i0ao"><center id="6i0ao"></center></acronym>