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外文翻譯及原文---族群與集群競爭力-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯及原文---族群與集群競爭力-其他專業.doc

英文文獻資料(一) Clusters and the New Economics of Competition Michael E. Porter (Harvard university) Why Clusters Are Critical to Competition Modern competition depends on productivity, not on access to inputs or the scale of individual enterprises.Productivity rests on how companies compete,not on the particular fields they compete in.Companies can be highly productive in any industry– shoes, agriculture, or semiconductors – if they employ sophisticated methods, use advanced technology,and offer unique products and services. All industries can employ advanced technology; all industries can be knowledge intensive. The sophistication with which companies compete in a particular location, however, is strongly influenced by the quality of the local business environment.1 Companies cannot employ advanced logistical techniques, for example, without a high quality transportation infrastructure. Nor can companies effectively compete on sophisticated service without well-educated employees. Businesses cannot operate efficiently under onerous regulatory red tape or under a court system that fails to resolve disputes quickly and fairly. Some aspects of the business environment, such as the legal system, for example, or corporate tax rates, affect all industries. In advanced economies, however, the more decisive aspects of the business environment are often cluster specific; these constitute some of the most important microeconomic foundations for competition. Clusters affect competition in three broad waysfirst, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation, which underpins future productivity growth; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses, which expands and strengthens the cluster itself. A cluster allows each member to benefit as if it had greater scale or as if it had joined with others formally – without requiring it to sacrifice its flexibility. Clusters and Productivity. Being part of a cluster allows companies to operate more productively in sourcing inputs; accessing information, technology,and needed institutions; coordinating with related companies; and measuring and motivating improvement. Better Access to Employees and Suppliers. Companies in vibrant clusters can tap into an existing pool of specialized and experienced employees, thereby lowering their search and transaction costs in recruiting. Because a cluster signals opportunity and reduces the risk of relocation for employees, it can also be easier to attract talented people from other locations, a decisive advantage in some industries. A well-developed cluster also provides an efficient means of obtaining other important inputs.Such a cluster offers a deep and specialized supplier base. Sourcing locally instead of from distant suppliers lowers transaction costs. It minimizes the need for inventory, eliminates importing costs and delays, and – because local reputation is important – lowers the risk that suppliers will overprice or renege on commitments. Proximity improves communications and makes it easier for suppliers to provide ancillary or support services such as installation and debugging. Other things being equal, then, local outsourcing is a better solution than distant outsourcing, especially for advanced and specialized inputs involving embedded technology, information, and service content. Formal alliances with distant suppliers can mitigate some of the disadvantages of distant outsourcing. But all formal alliances involve their own complex bargaining and governance problems and can inhibit a company’s flexibility. The close, informal relationships possible among companies in a cluster are often a superior Arrangement. In many cases, clusters are also a better alternative to vertical integration.Compared with in-house units, outside specialists are often more cost effective and responsive, not only in component production but also in services such as training. Although extensive vertical integration may have once been the norm, a fast-changing environment can render vertical integration inefficient, ineffective, and inflexible. Even when some inputs are best sourced from a distance, clusters offer advantages. Suppliers trying to penetrate a large, concentrated market will price more aggressively, knowing that as they do so they can realize efficiencies in marketing and in service. Working against a cluster’s advantages in assembling resources is the possibility that competition will render them more expensive and scarce. But companies do have the alternative of outsourcing many inputs from other locations, which tends to limit potential cost penalties. More important, clusters increase not only the demand for specialized inputs but also their supply. Access to Specialized Information. Extensive market, technical, and competitive information accumulates within a cluster, and members have preferred access to it. In addition, personal relationships and community ties foster trust and facilitate the flow of information. These conditions make information more transferable. Complementarities. A host of linkages among cluster members results in a whole greater than the sum of its parts. In a typical tourism cluster, for example, the quality of a visitor’s experience depends not only on the appeal of the primary attraction but also on the quality and efficiency of complementary businesses such as hotels, restaurants, shopping outlets, and transportation facilities. Because members of the cluster are mutually dependent, good performance by one can boost the success of the others. Complementarities come in many forms. The most obvious is when products complement one another in meeting customers’ needs, as the tourism example illustrates. Another form is the coordination of activities across companies to optimize their collective productivity. In wood products, for instance, the efficiency of sawmills depends on a reliable supply of high-quality timber and the ability to put all the timber to use – in furniture highest quality, pallets and boxes lower quality, or wood chips lowest quality. In the early 1990s, Portuguese sawmills suffered from poor timber quality because local landowners did not invest in timber management. Hence most timber was processed for use in pallets and boxes, a lower-value use that limited the price paid to landowners. Substantial improvement in productivity was possible, but only if several parts of the cluster changed simultaneously. Logging operations, for example, had to modify cutting and sorting procedures, while sawmills had to develop the capacity to process wood in more sophisticated ways. Coordination to develop standard wood classifications and measures was an important enabling step. Geographically dispersed companies are less likely to recognize and capture such linkages. Other complementarities arise in marketing. A cluster frequently enhances the reputation of a location in a particular field, making it more likely that buyers will turn to a vendor based there. Italy’s strong reputation for fashion and design, for example, benefits companies involved in leather goods, footwear, apparel, and accessories. Beyond reputation, cluster members often profit from a variety of joint marketing mechanisms, such as company referrals, trade fairs, trade magazines, and marketing delegations. Finally, complementarities can make buying from a cluster more attractive for customers. Visiting buyers can see many vendors in a single trip. They also may perceive their buying risk to be lower because one location provides alternative suppliers. That allows them to multisource or to switch vendors if the need arises. Hong Kong thrives as a source of fashion apparel in part for this reason. Access to Institutions and Public Goods. Investments made by government or other public institutions– such as public spending for specialized infrastructure or educational programs – can enhance a company’s productivity. The ability to recruit employees trained at local programs, for example, lowers the cost of internal training. Other quasi-public goods, such as the cluster’s information and technology pools and its reputation, arise as natural by-products of competition. It is not just governments that create public goods that enhance productivity in the private sector. Investments by companies – in training programs, infrastructure, quality centers, testing laboratories, and so on – also contribute to increased productivity. Such private investments are often made collectively because cluster participants recognize the potential for collective benefits. Better Motivation and Measurement. Local rivalry is highly motivating. Peer pressure amplifies competitive pressure within a cluster,even among noncompeting or indirectly competing companies. Pride and the desire to look good in the local community spur executives to attempt to outdo one another. Clusters also often make it easier to measure and compare performances because local rivals share general circumstances – for example, labor costs and local market access – and they perform similar activities. Companies within clusters typically have intimate knowledge of their suppliers’ costs. Managers are able to compare costs and employees’ performance with other local companies. Additionally, financial institutions can accumulate knowledge about the cluster that can be used to monitor performance. Clusters and Innovation. In addition to enhancing productivity, clusters play a vital role in a company’s ongoing ability to innovate. Some of the same characteristics that enhance current productivity have an even more dramatic effect on innovation and productivity growth. Because sophisticated buyers are often part of a cluster, companies inside clusters usually have a better window on the market than isolated competitors do. Computer companies based in Silicon Valley and Austin, Texas, for example, plug into customer needs and trends with a speed difficult to match by companies located elsewhere. The ongoing relationships with other entities within the cluster also help companies to learn early about evolving technology, component and machinery availability, service and marketing concepts, and so on. Such learning is facilitated by the ease of making site visits and frequent face-to-face contact. Clusters do more than make opportunities for innovation more visible. They also provide the capacity and the flexibility to act rapidly. A company within a cluster often can source what it needs to implement innovations more quickly. Local suppliers and partners can and do get closely involved in the innovation process, thus ensuring a better match with customers’ requirements. Companies within a cluster can experiment at lower cost and can delay large commitments until they are more assured that a given innovation will pan out. In contrast, a company relying on distant suppliers faces greater challenges in every activity it coordinates with other organizations – in contracting, for example, or securing delivery or obtaining associated technical and service support. Innovation can be even harder in vertically integrated companies, especially in those that face difficult trade-offs if the innovation erodes the value of in-house assets or if current products or processes must be maintained while new ones are developed. Reinforcing the other advantages for innovation is the sheer pressure – competitive pressure, peer pressure, constant comparison – that occurs in a cluster. Executives vie with one another to set their companies apart. For all these reasons, clusters can remain centers of innovation for decades. Clusters and New Business Formation. It is not surprising, then, that many new companies grow up within an existing cluster rather than at isolated locations. New suppliers, for example, proliferate within a cluster because a concentrated customer base lowers their risks and makes it easier for them to spot market opportunities. Moreover, because developed clusters comprise related industries that normally draw on common or very similar inputs, suppliers enjoy expanded opportunities. Clusters are conducive to new business formation for a variety of reasons. Individuals working within a cluster can more easily perceive gaps in products or services around which they can build businesses. Beyond that, barriers to entry are lower than elsewhere. Needed assets, skills, inputs, and staff are often readily available at the cluster location, waiting to be assembled into a new enterprise. Local financial institutions and investors, already familiar with the cluster, may require a lower risk premium on capital. In addition, the cluster often presents a significant local market, and an entrepreneur may benefit from established relationships. All of these factors reduce the perceived risks of entry – and of exit, should the enterprise fail. The formation of new businesses within a cluster is part of a positive feedback loop. An expanded cluster amplifies all the benefits I have described – it increases the collective pool of competitive resources, which benefits all the cluster’s members. The net result is that companies in the cluster advance relative to rivals at other locations. 英文文獻中文翻譯(二) 來源哈佛商業評論Vol.76第6期 1998年 作者邁克E. 波特 出版時間1998 簇群與新競爭經濟學 美)邁克E. 波特 為什么簇群對競爭至關重要 現代競爭取決于生產力, 而非取決于投入或單個企業的規模。生產力取決于公司如何競爭, 而非它們在何領域競爭。如果公司運用熟練的方法和先進的技術, 提供獨特的產品和服務,那任何產業,鞋業、農業或半導體產業都能產生較高的生產力。所有產業都能夠運用先進的技術;所有產業都能成為知識密集型產業。 然而, 公司在某一特定的地理位置進行競爭的復雜程度受當地商業環境質量的影響極 大。例如,如果缺乏高質量的交通運輸基礎設施,公司就無法使用先進的后勤技術。同樣,如果沒有受過良好教育的雇員, 公司也無法在成熟的服務業中進行有效的競爭。企業無法在繁雜的管制性紅頭文件或一個不能迅速、公平地解決爭端的法院體系下進行有效的競爭。商業環境的某些方面, 例如法律制度或公司稅率, 也會影響所有產業。在發達的國家中, 商業環境中起決定性作用的方面通常是簇群所特有的,這為競爭打下了最重要的微觀經濟基礎。 簇群通過三種方式影響競爭首先,通過增強以該領域為立足點的公司的生產力來施加影響; 其次,通過推動創新的方向和步伐,為未來生產力的增長奠定堅實的基礎; 再次,通過鼓勵新企業的形成,擴大并增強簇群本身來影響競爭。每個簇群總能使其每個成員受益,仿佛它擁有更大的規模或已與其他簇群正式地聯合在一起而并不要求它犧牲自身的靈活性。 簇群與生產力 成為簇群的一部分將使得公司在尋求投入、獲得信息技術及所要的制度、協調相關公司和促進改善等方面運作起來更加有效。 獲取雇員和供應商的更好途徑。在有活力的簇群內公司可以利用現有的各種專業化、有經驗的雇員, 從而降低他們在招聘過程中的搜索成本和交易成本。因為每一個大簇群意味著有更多的機會,減少重新安置雇員的風險。它還易于從其他地區吸引人才,從某些產業中攫取起決定性作用的優勢。 一個發展狀況良好的簇群為獲取其它重要的投入要素提供了一條有效的途徑。它提供了 一個深層次、專業化的供應商基地。就地取材而不是從遙遠的供應商那里獲取資源,可以降低交易成本。這有助于把存貨需求降低到最小程度, 同時也有助于減少進口成本以及避免生產延誤。而且本地聲譽可以起到重要作用,它有助于降低供應商抬高價格或違約的風險。地理位置的相近性有利于改善通訊聯絡、有利于供應商提供輔助性服務, 諸如安裝、排除故障之類的服務。然而, 如果其他條件相同, 就地取材比從遠處取材更為方便快捷, 尤其是對于那些涉及內在信息、技術和服務滿意度等先進性、專業化的投入要素來說更是如此。 與外地供應商正式結盟,可以緩解從外地獲取資源的許多劣勢。但是,所有正式的聯盟都 將涉及他們各自復雜的議價問題和管理問題,從而限制了公司的靈活性和機動性。所以,簇群 內部各公司之間親密而又非正式的關系通常是較優的選擇。 在許多案例中,簇群是取代垂直一體化的更好選擇。與內設單位相比,外部的專家在部件 生產和諸如培訓等服務方面, 通常更具有成本效益和責任心。雖然廣泛的垂直一體化曾經是 我們的追求目標,但是,瞬息萬變的外部環境可能使垂直一體化缺乏效率、效能和靈活性。 即使某些投入要素最好從遠地獲取, 簇群也仍然可以提供某些優勢。那些致力于滲入一 個廣闊而又集中的市場的供應商們, 將會使其定價更具競爭性, 因為他們

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