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外文翻译及原文---族群与集群竞争力-其他专业.doc

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外文翻译及原文---族群与集群竞争力-其他专业.doc

英文文献资料(一) Clusters and the New Economics of Competition Michael E. Porter (Harvard university) Why Clusters Are Critical to Competition Modern competition depends on productivity, not on access to inputs or the scale of individual enterprises.Productivity rests on how companies compete,not on the particular fields they compete in.Companies can be highly productive in any industry– shoes, agriculture, or semiconductors – if they employ sophisticated methods, use advanced technology,and offer unique products and services. All industries can employ advanced technology; all industries can be knowledge intensive. The sophistication with which companies compete in a particular location, however, is strongly influenced by the quality of the local business environment.1 Companies cannot employ advanced logistical techniques, for example, without a high quality transportation infrastructure. Nor can companies effectively compete on sophisticated service without well-educated employees. Businesses cannot operate efficiently under onerous regulatory red tape or under a court system that fails to resolve disputes quickly and fairly. Some aspects of the business environment, such as the legal system, for example, or corporate tax rates, affect all industries. In advanced economies, however, the more decisive aspects of the business environment are often cluster specific; these constitute some of the most important microeconomic foundations for competition. Clusters affect competition in three broad waysfirst, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation, which underpins future productivity growth; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses, which expands and strengthens the cluster itself. A cluster allows each member to benefit as if it had greater scale or as if it had joined with others formally – without requiring it to sacrifice its flexibility. Clusters and Productivity. Being part of a cluster allows companies to operate more productively in sourcing inputs; accessing information, technology,and needed institutions; coordinating with related companies; and measuring and motivating improvement. Better Access to Employees and Suppliers. Companies in vibrant clusters can tap into an existing pool of specialized and experienced employees, thereby lowering their search and transaction costs in recruiting. Because a cluster signals opportunity and reduces the risk of relocation for employees, it can also be easier to attract talented people from other locations, a decisive advantage in some industries. A well-developed cluster also provides an efficient means of obtaining other important inputs.Such a cluster offers a deep and specialized supplier base. Sourcing locally instead of from distant suppliers lowers transaction costs. It minimizes the need for inventory, eliminates importing costs and delays, and – because local reputation is important – lowers the risk that suppliers will overprice or renege on commitments. Proximity improves communications and makes it easier for suppliers to provide ancillary or support services such as installation and debugging. Other things being equal, then, local outsourcing is a better solution than distant outsourcing, especially for advanced and specialized inputs involving embedded technology, information, and service content. Formal alliances with distant suppliers can mitigate some of the disadvantages of distant outsourcing. But all formal alliances involve their own complex bargaining and governance problems and can inhibit a company’s flexibility. The close, informal relationships possible among companies in a cluster are often a superior Arrangement. In many cases, clusters are also a better alternative to vertical integration.Compared with in-house units, outside specialists are often more cost effective and responsive, not only in component production but also in services such as training. Although extensive vertical integration may have once been the norm, a fast-changing environment can render vertical integration inefficient, ineffective, and inflexible. Even when some inputs are best sourced from a distance, clusters offer advantages. Suppliers trying to penetrate a large, concentrated market will price more aggressively, knowing that as they do so they can realize efficiencies in marketing and in service. Working against a cluster’s advantages in assembling resources is the possibility that competition will render them more expensive and scarce. But companies do have the alternative of outsourcing many inputs from other locations, which tends to limit potential cost penalties. More important, clusters increase not only the demand for specialized inputs but also their supply. Access to Specialized Information. Extensive market, technical, and competitive information accumulates within a cluster, and members have preferred access to it. In addition, personal relationships and community ties foster trust and facilitate the flow of information. These conditions make information more transferable. Complementarities. A host of linkages among cluster members results in a whole greater than the sum of its parts. In a typical tourism cluster, for example, the quality of a visitor’s experience depends not only on the appeal of the primary attraction but also on the quality and efficiency of complementary businesses such as hotels, restaurants, shopping outlets, and transportation facilities. Because members of the cluster are mutually dependent, good performance by one can boost the success of the others. Complementarities come in many forms. The most obvious is when products complement one another in meeting customers’ needs, as the tourism example illustrates. Another form is the coordination of activities across companies to optimize their collective productivity. In wood products, for instance, the efficiency of sawmills depends on a reliable supply of high-quality timber and the ability to put all the timber to use – in furniture highest quality, pallets and boxes lower quality, or wood chips lowest quality. In the early 1990s, Portuguese sawmills suffered from poor timber quality because local landowners did not invest in timber management. Hence most timber was processed for use in pallets and boxes, a lower-value use that limited the price paid to landowners. Substantial improvement in productivity was possible, but only if several parts of the cluster changed simultaneously. Logging operations, for example, had to modify cutting and sorting procedures, while sawmills had to develop the capacity to process wood in more sophisticated ways. Coordination to develop standard wood classifications and measures was an important enabling step. Geographically dispersed companies are less likely to recognize and capture such linkages. Other complementarities arise in marketing. A cluster frequently enhances the reputation of a location in a particular field, making it more likely that buyers will turn to a vendor based there. Italy’s strong reputation for fashion and design, for example, benefits companies involved in leather goods, footwear, apparel, and accessories. Beyond reputation, cluster members often profit from a variety of joint marketing mechanisms, such as company referrals, trade fairs, trade magazines, and marketing delegations. Finally, complementarities can make buying from a cluster more attractive for customers. Visiting buyers can see many vendors in a single trip. They also may perceive their buying risk to be lower because one location provides alternative suppliers. That allows them to multisource or to switch vendors if the need arises. Hong Kong thrives as a source of fashion apparel in part for this reason. Access to Institutions and Public Goods. Investments made by government or other public institutions– such as public spending for specialized infrastructure or educational programs – can enhance a company’s productivity. The ability to recruit employees trained at local programs, for example, lowers the cost of internal training. Other quasi-public goods, such as the cluster’s information and technology pools and its reputation, arise as natural by-products of competition. It is not just governments that create public goods that enhance productivity in the private sector. Investments by companies – in training programs, infrastructure, quality centers, testing laboratories, and so on – also contribute to increased productivity. Such private investments are often made collectively because cluster participants recognize the potential for collective benefits. Better Motivation and Measurement. Local rivalry is highly motivating. Peer pressure amplifies competitive pressure within a cluster,even among noncompeting or indirectly competing companies. Pride and the desire to look good in the local community spur executives to attempt to outdo one another. Clusters also often make it easier to measure and compare performances because local rivals share general circumstances – for example, labor costs and local market access – and they perform similar activities. Companies within clusters typically have intimate knowledge of their suppliers’ costs. Managers are able to compare costs and employees’ performance with other local companies. Additionally, financial institutions can accumulate knowledge about the cluster that can be used to monitor performance. Clusters and Innovation. In addition to enhancing productivity, clusters play a vital role in a company’s ongoing ability to innovate. Some of the same characteristics that enhance current productivity have an even more dramatic effect on innovation and productivity growth. Because sophisticated buyers are often part of a cluster, companies inside clusters usually have a better window on the market than isolated competitors do. Computer companies based in Silicon Valley and Austin, Texas, for example, plug into customer needs and trends with a speed difficult to match by companies located elsewhere. The ongoing relationships with other entities within the cluster also help companies to learn early about evolving technology, component and machinery availability, service and marketing concepts, and so on. Such learning is facilitated by the ease of making site visits and frequent face-to-face contact. Clusters do more than make opportunities for innovation more visible. They also provide the capacity and the flexibility to act rapidly. A company within a cluster often can source what it needs to implement innovations more quickly. Local suppliers and partners can and do get closely involved in the innovation process, thus ensuring a better match with customers’ requirements. Companies within a cluster can experiment at lower cost and can delay large commitments until they are more assured that a given innovation will pan out. In contrast, a company relying on distant suppliers faces greater challenges in every activity it coordinates with other organizations – in contracting, for example, or securing delivery or obtaining associated technical and service support. Innovation can be even harder in vertically integrated companies, especially in those that face difficult trade-offs if the innovation erodes the value of in-house assets or if current products or processes must be maintained while new ones are developed. Reinforcing the other advantages for innovation is the sheer pressure – competitive pressure, peer pressure, constant comparison – that occurs in a cluster. Executives vie with one another to set their companies apart. For all these reasons, clusters can remain centers of innovation for decades. Clusters and New Business Formation. It is not surprising, then, that many new companies grow up within an existing cluster rather than at isolated locations. New suppliers, for example, proliferate within a cluster because a concentrated customer base lowers their risks and makes it easier for them to spot market opportunities. Moreover, because developed clusters comprise related industries that normally draw on common or very similar inputs, suppliers enjoy expanded opportunities. Clusters are conducive to new business formation for a variety of reasons. Individuals working within a cluster can more easily perceive gaps in products or services around which they can build businesses. Beyond that, barriers to entry are lower than elsewhere. Needed assets, skills, inputs, and staff are often readily available at the cluster location, waiting to be assembled into a new enterprise. Local financial institutions and investors, already familiar with the cluster, may require a lower risk premium on capital. In addition, the cluster often presents a significant local market, and an entrepreneur may benefit from established relationships. All of these factors reduce the perceived risks of entry – and of exit, should the enterprise fail. The formation of new businesses within a cluster is part of a positive feedback loop. An expanded cluster amplifies all the benefits I have described – it increases the collective pool of competitive resources, which benefits all the cluster’s members. The net result is that companies in the cluster advance relative to rivals at other locations. 英文文献中文翻译(二) 来源哈佛商业评论Vol.76第6期 1998年 作者迈克E. 波特 出版时间1998 簇群与新竞争经济学 美)迈克E. 波特 为什?#21019;?#32676;对竞争至关重要 现代竞争取决于生产力, 而非取决于投入或单个企业的规模。生产力取决于公司如何竞争, 而非它们在何领域竞争。如果公司运用熟练的方法和先进的技术, 提供独特的产品和服务,那任何产业,鞋业、农业或半导体产业都能产生较高的生产力。所有产业都能够运用先进的技术;所有产业都能成为知识密集型产业。 ?#27426;? 公司在某一特定的地理位置进行竞争的复杂程度受当地商业环?#25345;?#37327;的影响极 大。例如,如果缺乏高质量的交通运输基础设施,公司就无法使用先进的后勤技术。同样,如果没有受过良好教育的雇员, 公司也无法在成熟的服务业中进行有效的竞争。企业无法在繁杂的管制性红头文件或一个不能迅速、公平地解决争端的法院体系下进行有效的竞争。商业环境的某些方面, 例如法律制度或公司税率, 也会影响所有产业。在发达的国家中, 商业环?#25345;?#36215;决定性作用的方面通常是簇群所特有的,这为竞争打下了最重要的微观经济基础。 簇群通过三种方式影响竞争首先,通过增强以该领域为立足点的公?#38236;?#29983;产力来施加影响; 其次,通过推动创新的方向和步伐,为未来生产力?#33041;?#38271;奠定坚实的基础; 再次,通过鼓励新企业的形成,扩大并增强簇群本身来影响竞争。每个簇群总能使其每个成员受益,仿佛它拥有更大的规模或已与其他簇群正式地联合在一起而并不要求它牺牲自身的灵活性。 簇群与生产力 成为簇群的一部分将使得公司在寻求投入、获得信息技术及所要的制度、协调相关公?#31454;?#20419;进改善等方面运作起来更加有效。 获取雇员和供应商的更好途径。在有活力的簇群内公?#31350;?#20197;利用现有的各种专业化、有经验的雇员, 从而?#26723;?#20182;们在招聘过程中的搜索成?#31454;?#20132;易成本。因为每一个大簇群意味着有更多的机会,减少重新安置雇员的风险。它还易于从其他地区吸引人才,从某些产业中攫取起决定性作用的优势。 一个发展状况良好的簇群为获取其它重要的投入要素提供了一条有效的途径。它提供了 一个深层次、专业化的供应商基地。就地取材而不是从遥远的供应商那里获取资源,可以?#26723;?#20132;易成本。这有助于把存货需求?#26723;?#21040;最小程度, 同时也有助于减少进口成本以及避免生产?#28216;蟆?#32780;且?#38236;?#22768;誉可以起到重要作用,它有助于?#26723;?#20379;应商抬高价格或违约的风险。地理位置的相近性有利于改善通讯联络、有利于供应商提供辅助性服务, 诸如安装、排除故?#29616;?#31867;的服务。?#27426;? 如果其他条件相同, 就地取材比从远处取材更为方便快捷, 尤其是对于那些涉及内在信息、技术和服务满意度?#35748;?#36827;性、专业化的投入要素来说更是如此。 与外地供应商正式结盟,可以缓解从外地获取资源的许多?#37038;啤?#20294;是,所有正式的联盟都 将涉及他们各自复杂的议价问题和管理问题,从而限制了公?#38236;?#28789;活性和机动性。所以,簇群 内部各公司之间亲密而又非正式的关系通常是较优的选择。 在许多案例中,簇群是取代垂直一体化的更好选择。与内设单位相比,外部的专家在部件 生产和诸如培?#26723;?#26381;务方面, 通常更具有成本效益和责任心。虽然广泛的垂直一体化曾经是 我们的?#38750;?#30446;标,但是,瞬息万变的外部环境可能使垂直一体化缺乏效率、效能和灵活性。 即使某些投入要素最好从远地获取, 簇群也仍然可以提供某些优势。那些致力于渗入一 个广阔而又集中的市场的供应商们, 将会使其定价更具竞争性, 因为他们

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