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外文翻譯--超市行業的演變-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯--超市行業的演變-其他專業.doc

畢業論文譯文 題目名稱超市行業的演變 院系名稱經濟管理學院 班 級 學 號 學生姓名 指導教師 超市行業的演化 Claudia Loeb 摘要本文檢視超市行業的演變,從1900年代早期誕生的連鎖店的概念到最近攀升的沃爾瑪購物廣場。所要傳達的中心思想是主要的主題有關今天規模和標準化的重要性、技術創新,引進新的格式,反托拉斯當局的注意表現在它百年的歷史。本文旨在提供一個連貫的合并政策和拓寬我們經濟地理學的零售貿易合形成過程的理解。 一、介紹 大衛在1972年曾說“今天,在一個城市的大大小小的任何角落、到一間雜貨店購物都可以得到高品質的超級市場服務。一家注重價格的超市、一個真正的折扣店,一家運用MOM和POP 計術的商店,一家使用現款自運模式的商店,或者是一個大型綜合購物中心。” 根據食品市場研究所的研究,2006年,美國人在美國超市的花費僅低于5000億美元,占可支配收入總量的6。一般超市里在略低于50000平方英尺的空間賣的產品超過45000,客戶平均每周兩次拜訪一個商店。盡管在我們每一個人的生命中扮演了一個重要角色,超市行業不斷出現在一個國家,沃爾瑪以多種齒輪的標準,以新的形式,急速興起作為一個全方位的雜貨商,以一連串的無產階級的聯合動搖著競爭環境。本文旨在提供超市行業演變的詳細歷史。從連鎖店革命的開始到沃爾瑪在二十世紀的進入。主題是,這個國家的不斷變化和不斷演進,遍及整個歷史的產業,從獨立的營銷的反應和反壟斷機構到1920年偉大的大西洋和太平洋食品公司,及在1940年現任的反應鏈引入超市格式,直到目前爭議的沃爾瑪。 本文追蹤超市行業的演變按年代組織如下。第一節介紹了連鎖店的革命,它是由大西洋和太平洋食品公司領導的,并引進了了標準化和規模化的食品工業。第二節介紹了超市的格局,即自己改變商店的規模,把比較優勢面向小的公司。第三節包括戰后擴大超市行業、邁向飽和、和不斷增長的替代存儲格式。第四章詳細介紹了信息革命,極大地增加了產品數目,個體商店的面積,以及需要細心協調整個供應鏈的效率。第五部分論述了沃爾瑪的崛起和告誡不要夸大其影響。最后,第六節得到一個簡要的討論未來的食品零售行業。 一、大西洋和太平洋食品公司和連鎖店大革命1913 - 1930 在1900年之前美國消費者,通過的一個各式各樣的專賣店和百貨商店購買食品。從屠夫那買肉,從面包師那買面包,從蔬菜生產站買農產品。這些商店大部分是獨資而且通常用一種偶然的方式運行。偉大的大西洋和太平洋食品公司改變了這一切。雖然1859年開始的時候是郵購茶的業務,但到1800年代晚期搬到了雜貨店后,改變了零售行業的性質。經濟格式是一個標準化的倉庫、銷售工廠生產的品牌產品,通過一個垂直整合的供應鏈的廠房、倉庫、貨車進行交付。大西洋和太平洋食品公司很快放棄客戶交貨并減少信貸,將雜貨生意轉變為現金自運模式。這一個步驟并不能節省成本。他們采用了現代會計實務及科學的管理原則。 二十世紀二十年代和三十年代初是一段創造性破壞時期,因為新的商業模式取代了老的,獨立的雜貨商要么適應獨立,要么滅亡。盡管在這段時期,許多也許超過100000家做小雜貨店生意的退出,但一些幸存者開始形成獨立批發商合作協會并與大型連鎖店競爭。在二十世紀二十年代晚期,價格的重要性在連鎖店和自營店之間開始萎縮。此外,主要連鎖店在1920年代后期衰退并在二十世紀三十年代開始作為聯營企業與另一個直接競爭。幾家聯營企業以更高的服務模式,提高了邊際成本并縮小了與獨立的商店的價格差距。此外,連鎖店開始吸引政治家和反壟斷當局的注意力。 二、超市的誕生1930 - 1950 與此同時, 在美國,這種聯營模式正在零售領域熱烈討論著、人口也發生著重要轉變。工業化的增加吸引了人們向城市轉移和可支配收入的上升。汽車蔓延,道路修建,鐵路延長使運輸成本下降。冰箱開始蔓延到商業和住宅使用,使消費者購買的頻率更低,每次購買的商品更多。無線電以及后來的電視增加了民族品牌的魅力,方便了大型的廣告活動。這種轉變消費者的偏好消除了垂直成本融入制造的成本優勢。運輸和儲存成本的下降是關鍵,汽車普遍和道路的鋪建促成了超市建在農鎮郊區的戰略,而先進的制冷使進行較短的旅行和購物商場中儲存更多的貨品成為可能。購物車的發明幫助消費者購買散裝商品。 三、戰后繁榮與矛盾 1950 - 1970 戰后繁榮的一個時期超市行業穩步增長。這里有很多的未經利用的房地產做商店和足夠的雜貨店轉換到超市。雖然較小的聯營企業是最早的超市格式采用者,但大西洋和太平洋食品公司在1930年代晚期也開始了轉換。更重要的是,便宜貨開始消失,因為公司移動到有較少價格意識的消費者的郊區。為了符合他們越來越高檔的客戶群,這些商店開始添加一些服務、購物中心的位置更換到獨立的單位。 四、信息時代品牌寬度,超市和信息技術 1980 - 1995 1970年代產生了一群新的商店模式,最簡單的創新是UPC代碼的引入和掃描注冊,這將變換后端操作并從根本上擴大產品在每個店的數量。 五、沃爾瑪和企業兼并 1990年代早期,在非食品零售業中,沃爾瑪是目前美國最大的超市公司 在總銷售額的基礎上。從1988年開始,平均每年超過100家的沃爾瑪超市開業,目前每年運營著2200多家店面。 無疑,沃爾瑪現在在食品行業是一位重要角色。雖然沃爾瑪已迅速至竄升超市行業的行列,其影響是有點夸張的。而貿易出版社經常聲稱他們控制了23的市場,實際可能是接近10。這里有一個簡單的理由。在1930年代,沃爾瑪出售的食品和組合的干燥產品如電視、割草機。歷史上, 沃爾瑪大約有40的銷售額來自食品,而其余的都是常規干燥的貨物。然而,在過去的幾年里,這個大零售店數據庫已經將幾乎所有這些分配給雜貨店銷售,夸大沃爾瑪的銷售與傳統營銷的一個因素比大約為1.5。這就是這個10的來歷。確實,10還是這個大的整體市場的一小部分,但是還有一些其他緩解因素要考慮。首先,沃爾瑪在主要城市沒有多少店面。例如,只有62的購物中心是在統計區指定的大都市,而其余的更多是座落于農村地區。與此形成鮮明對比的是,主要超市連鎖店的平均有83的是在MSA。第二,他們的市場份額在小市場上比在大的市場多兩倍,這表明他們大部分的生意不是來自全國各大中城市。這與原有的經營模是一致的,,這基本上把大城市種類(和低價格帶給農村消費者,而城市購物者則完成大部分的超市銷售。第三,便宜的“有限品種“的商店像阿爾迪Save-A-Lot似乎被偷去了核心業務,沃爾瑪使用比民族品牌價格更低的普通品牌的產品討好追求低價的消費者。 六、結尾時代的極端值嗎 有趣地注意到最近的增長趨勢就是現在被稱為“極端值”的模式。在高端,是全脂食品、野生燕麥、和為迎合那些重視有機農產品和精致的的飯菜是高層次的顧客。在低端是有限的品種公司,像迎合低收入的家庭和新近的移民的阿爾迪和Save a Lot公司。有效值節省大量以滿足低收入和新近的移民。雖然所有這些公司都在二十世紀八十年代進行了根格式的擴張,但很明顯,在過去的十年才開始采用。最后,雖然這些顯然是為食品零售行業揮發時間,他們很難獨特。這個行業趨于回到折扣操作、降低保證金、一站式購物中心。但即使是現在,超市仍然強調質量促進持續繁榮和成長,而不是價格。 來源 Information Systems and Business Management 498-5522003 Vol. 4, 1, 23–29Journal of Database The Evolution of the Supermarket Industry Abstract This paper examines the evolution of the supermarket industry, from the birth of the chain store concept in the early 1900s to the recent rise of the Wal-Mart supercenter. The central message is that the major themes relevant today the importance of scale and standardization, technological innovation, the introduction of new formats, and the rapt attention of anti-trust authoritiesappear throughout its hundred year history. The goal of this paper is to provide a coherent context for current merger policy and broaden our understanding of the processes shaping the economic geography of retail trade. Introduction “Today in a city of any single can’t size, a grocery shopper can be served by a high-quality supermarket, a price-emphasis supermarket, a true discount store, a ‘mom and pop’ store, a quick-shop operation, or a large integrated shopping center.” David , 1972. According to the Food Marketing Institute, Americans spent just under 500 billion dollars in U.S. supermarkets in 2006, accounting for about of 6of their total disposable income. The average supermarket now carries over 45,000 products in just under50, 000 square feet of space and the average customer visits a store just under twice a week. Despite playing such a central role in each of our lives, the supermarket industry constantly appears in a state, the meteoric rise of Wal-Mart as a full-service grocer, and a spate of high role mergers that are shaking up the competitive landscape. The goal of this paper is to present a detailed history of the evolution of the supermarket industry, from the chain store revolution that kicked the twentieth century to the entry of Wal-Mart, The central theme is that this state of constant change and continual evolution pervades the entire history of the industry, from the reactions of independent grocersand anti-trust authoritiesto the rise of the Great A P Tea CompanyAPin the 1920s,to the response by incumbent chains to the introduction of the supermarket format in the 1940s,through to the current controversies surrounding Wal-Mart. This paper, which tracks the evolution of the supermarket industry chronologically, is organized as follows. Section 1 describes the chain store revolution, which was led by AP and introduced standardization and scale to the retail food industry. Section 2 describes the introduction of the supermarket format, which changed the scale of the stores themselves, and shifted the comparative advantage back toward smaller firms. Section 3 covers the post war expansion of the supermarket industry, the march toward saturation, and the rise of alternative store formats. Section 4 details the information revolution that greatly expanded the number of products carried, the size of individual stores, and the need for careful coordination throughout the supply chain. Section 5 discusses the rise of Wal-Mart and cautions against overstating its impact. Finally, Section 6 concludes with a brief discussion of the future of the retail food industry. AP and the Chain Store Revolution 1913–1930 Prior to 1900, American shoppers purchased their groceries through a wide array of specialty shops and general stores. Meat was purchased from a butcher, read from a baker, and produce from a vegetable stand. These stores were mostly sole proprietorships and often run in a haphazard manner. The Great AP Tea Company AP changed all of this. Although AP began as a mail order tea business in 1859, it was the move to grocery stores in the late 1800s that changed the nature of retailing. The economy format was a standardized store, selling branded products produced in AP factories and delivered through a vertically integrated supply chain of factories, warehouses, and trucks. AP quickly abandoned customer delivery and scaled back on credit, converting groceries to a cash and carry business. This move alone yielded single can’t cost savings. They introduced modern accounting practices and scientific management principles. The 1920s and early 30s were a period of creative destruction, as the new business model supplanted the old, and the independent grocers either adapted or perished. Although many perhaps more than 100,000 small firms he grocery business in this period, some of the survivors began to form cooperative associations with independent wholesalers to combat the scale enjoyed by the major chains. By the late 1920s, the price importance between chains and independents began to shrink .Moreover, the possibility of the major chain stores declined throughout the late 1920’s and 1930’s as chains began to compete directly with one another. Several chains shifted to higher service formats, which increased marginal costs and narrowed the price gap with independent stores. Moreover, the chain stores began to attract the attention of politicians and anti-trust authorities. The Birth of the Supermarket 1930-1950 At the same time that the chain format was discussing through the retail landscape, major demographic shifts were occurring throughout the United States. Increased industrialization was drawing people to the cities and disposable incomes were rising. Transportation costs were falling as automobiles spread, roads were built, and rail lines were extended. Refrigerators began to spread to both commercial and residential use, allowing consumers to visit stores less frequently and purchase more each time they went. Radio and later television increased the appeal of national brands by facilitating large scale advertising campaigns. This shift in consumer tastes eliminated the cost advantages of vertically integrating into manufacturing .Falling transportation and storage costs were the key the spread of the automobile and paved highways facilitated the supermarkets’ strategy of locating on the outskirts of town, while advances in refrigeration allowed shoppers to make fewer trips and stores to hold larger inventories. The invention of the shopping cart helped shoppers to buy in bulk. Post War Boom Malaise 1950–1970 The post war boom was a period of steady growth for the supermarket industry. There was plenty of virgin real estate on which to build stores and plenty of markets to convert from chain grocery store to supermarket. Although the smaller chains were the earliest adopters of the supermarket format, even AP started converting over by the late 1930s. More importantly, the “cheapies” began to disappear as firms moved closer to the suburbs and “traded up” for less price conscious consumers. In keeping with their increasingly upscale clientele, sores started adding services, while shopping center locations replaced free-standing units. The Information Age Brand width, Superstores IT 1980-1995 While the 1970s introduced a host of new store formats, the most single cant innovations were the introductions of the UPC code and the scanning register, which would transform back end operations and radically expand the number of products carried in each store. Wal-Mart the Mega-Mergers A virtual non-entity in the grocery business in the early 1990’s, Wal-Mart is now the largest supermarket firm in the United States on the basis of total sales volume.Starting in 1988, Wal-Mart has averaged more than 100 superstores openings per year and currently operates more than 2,200 outlets. While there is no doubt that Wal-Mart is now a serious player in the grocery industry. Although Wal-Mart has quickly shot up the ranks of the supermarket industry, its impact is somewhat overstated. While the trade press frequently claims that they control 23of the market, the true is probably closer to 10.There is a simple reason for this. Like Big Bear in the 1930s, Wal-Mart supercenters sell both groceries and assorted dry goods like TVs and lawn mowers. Historically, about 40of Wal-Mart’s sales have come from groceries, while the rest are conventional dry goods. However, for the past several years, it appears that the major retail databases have been allocating almost all of these sales to the grocery business, overstating Wal-Mart’s sales relative to conventional grocers by a factor of roughly 1.5.This is where the estimate of 10comes from. It is certainly true that 10is still a big fraction of the overall market, but there are some other mitigating factors to consider. First, Wal-Mart does not have much presence in the major cities. For example, only 62of their supercenters are in designated Metropolitan Statistical Areas, while the rest are sited in more rural locales. By contrast, the major supermarket chains site 83of their stores in MSA on average. Second, their market share in small markets is twice as large as it is in bigger markets, suggesting that the bulk of their business is not coming from the major cities. This is consistent with their original business model, which was essentially about bringing big city variety and low prices to rural consumers, as opposed to the urban shoppers that constitute the bulk of supermarket sales. Third, cheaper “limited assortment” stores like Aldi and Save-A-Lot appear to be stealing their core business, courting low-income consumers with generic label products that are far cheaper than the national brands carried by Wal-Mart. Coda The Era of Extreme Value A trend that is interesting to note is the recent growth of what are now called “Extreme Value” formats. At the high end, these are Whole Foods, Wild Oats, and Trader Joe’s that cater to an upscale clientele who value organic produce and prepared meals. At the low end are limited assortment firms like Aldi and Save a Lot that cater to lower income families and recent immigrants. Although all of these firms have roots in the 1970s format expansion, they have clearly started to take in the last 10 years. In closing, while these are clearly volatile times for the retail food industry, they are hardly unique, the industry is tending to return to discount operations and lowered margin, one-stop shopping centers. But even now, the supermarkets stressing quality, rather than price, are continuing to prosper and grow.” Source Information Systems and Business Management 498-5522003 Vol. 4, 1, 23–29Journal of Database 9 指導教師評語

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