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外文翻譯以及原文---在機械系統中綠色制造方面的調查和實踐-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯以及原文---在機械系統中綠色制造方面的調查和實踐-其他專業.doc

外文翻譯 專 業 機械設計制造及其自動化 學 生 姓 名 肖 俊 指 導 教 師 楊 六 順 . 在機械系統中綠色制造方面的調查和實踐 摘要機械加工系統是一個典型的制造系統。一個機械系統的綠色制造結構是用來描述系統的輸入,輸出及其控制元素的特征。 基于此功能結構,出現了機械系統的綠色制造問題框架。 機械系統中的綠色制造問題分為三類和相關系列的子問題。 在綠色制造問題框架中的三個問題分別是能源消費最少,環境污染最少,和兩者的復合最少。 一系列在機械系統綠色制造方面的問題,專家進行了相當長時間的調查和實踐,簡要概括如下優化原材料能源消費結構,優化制造中能源節約相匹配的系統,優化高效率的刀具設計,優化機械系統中綠色制造的多目標制造模型。 關鍵詞制造系統,綠色制造,結構。 1.引言 由刀具和輔助設備構成的制造系統, 是一個通過改變形狀和特征將原材料或者半成品加工成下一步生產的終產品或者半成品。由工作母機組成的制造單位,工廠或者生產線是最典型的制造系統。 將加工原材料轉變成成品或半成品的過程是一個增值的過程,加工系統是一個能為人類創造將來的系統。盡管如此,在轉變過程中,兩方面影響共同存在。一是能源消耗問題,另一個是環境污染問題。 伴隨著強有力的環境法和規定的執行,和正在提高的環境保護的公共意識,上面的兩個問題被學術和工業協會給予重視。 他們展開了一些調查,但是仍然在相當長的時間內人們忽略了在制造系統中存在的問題,而且相關的固有問題也沒有得到妥善解決。綠色制造是一個制造概念,也是一個與可持續發展政策一致的哲學。從綠色制造觀點而言,本文構造了以上所提問題的整體結構。近幾年由中國重慶大學綠色制造科技學院執行的此框架,便呈現了一些在綠色制造方面的研究實踐和成就。 2. 制造系統中“綠色”問題 綠色制造系統是,在整個產品從設計,制造包裝,運輸,使用,回收到廢物處理的循環中,既要考慮環境影響又要考慮能源消耗問題的制造方式。它的目的是使得對環境的消極影響最小化,使得資源的利用率最大化,使得經濟效益和整體效益最佳化。實質上,綠色制造是可持續發展政策和循環經濟制造的體現。機械制造系統是一個基本的制造系統,綠色制造的含義和哲學可以絕對應用于機械制造系統。 但是事實上,當加工系統進行生產時,正如圖2所示,有形和無形環境污染在生產過程中產生了。這些環境污染主要包括 1 固體廢物,剩余材料,廢鐵等; 2 液體廢物,廢冷卻液,廢潤滑劑等; 3 氣體廢物,冷卻水霧,塵埃等; 4 噪聲污染; 5 其他污染,熱能,震動等。 圖2展示了綠色制造加工系統的作用框架,此加工系統強調了材料輸入,過程控制,產品輸出,以及在綠色制造的加工系統中環境污染等。根據加工系統的綠色制造功能框架,很多重要的綠色制造問題被發現和得知。一般他們可被分為以下三中類型1資源消耗最小化,它主要包括三個子問題材料消耗最小化,能量消耗最小化,和輔助材料消耗最小化。2環境污染最小化。3能源消耗和環境污染的符合最小化。例如,在加工過程中有大量的選擇問題,如加工過程路線的選擇,機器刀具冷卻液選擇。 傳統的選擇問題在加工中主要考慮三個因素即時間,花費,質量。 盡管如此,加工過程中,上面提到的決策問題中的加工元素對資源消耗和環境污染有著必然聯系。因此,從綠色制造角度來講,在決策時,資源消耗和環境污染這兩方面的影響仍然需要考慮進去.以上所提到的三種問題可以進一步分成能說明加工系統的綠色制造問題.如圖3所示. 很明顯,材料,能量,廢物流動的分析是解決這三類問題的先決條件。 3.加工系統中對綠色制造的調查和實踐 3.1.材料流動和其最小化材料分析模型應考慮單一的機械種類,加工中的材料以及材料分析模型可以建立,在整個加工系統中的利用率U,損失率V以及材料消耗的廢物可以計算出來。包括利用率,損失率和材料消耗廢物模型不是依靠零件的加工工程而是依靠加工用量,這是由零件設計人員和技術人員決定的。節約材料的方法是粗糙工件的篩選和廢料的回收。正常情況下,粗糙工件是從大的片體或者圓柱材料上切割下來的。有各種方法來從原材料上切割粗糙工件,并且用各種方法切割的粗糙工件其利用率是不同的。因此,通過優化原材料切割是節約材料的最有效的方法,切割原材料的最佳系統被限制了,軟件是用來優化棒和板的切割。于是,在中國有500多個企業已經買了軟件。 3.2 能量流動 3.2.1.有關能量流動模型的調查主要集中在機械加工系統中的降低能量的消耗上面。不管怎么樣,從綠色制造的觀點來看,機械加工系統中的能量消耗問題應全面考慮。圖4顯示了在基本加工系統中能量的流動,如圖4所示降低能量僅僅是加工系統中全部能量消耗的一部分. 3.2.2在能源消費最小化的和在以多個機械工具的加工系統中為節約能源相匹配的系統實踐.根據圖4三個主要方法可以被采用,來節約能源。 1通過降低能源消費,優化部件設計和過程參數; 2通過降低能量損失,提高加工系統的效率; 3通過減少由加工系統的非裝載造成的能量損失。 隨著一系列的分析和實驗,一個新的節約能源的方法被發現了。在加工系統中用多刀具和多工件,通過以合理的方式將刀具和工件匹配起來是一個有效的方法來降低能源消耗。原因是每個刀具非裝載時消耗能量的特點是不同的。 因此,即使工件的加工參數保持不變,用不同的刀具加工工件所消耗的能量是不同的.下面是一個很簡單的例子。有兩個車床,1號和2號,并且工件的兩個車床需要調換一下,根據過程要求, 當輪到工件A時主軸轉速應該是600轉/分鐘,當輪到工件B時轉速應該是185轉/分鐘。當工件被轉換到另一個車床上時因為切削能量P和額外的能量P幾乎是相等的,非裝載的能量消耗可以比較。根據非裝載能量消耗的測驗數據,方案一消耗0. 79 kW h,方案二消耗0.65 kWh。當轉換兩個工件的車床時, 很明顯可以得出如果采用方案二,可以節約0.14KW*H。這個能量節約方法已經應用于幾個工廠,并且較好的節約能源的效果已經達到了。 3.3廢物流及其最小化 3.3.1廢物流分析。在加工過程的廢物流由剩余材料,次品,廢冷卻液等。 1剩余材料,廢鐵等。通常,這些固體金屬可以足夠的回收,但是如果車間里的管理措施不能較好的實施,一些傷害或者事故可能會發生,比如說由飛濺的金屬片造成的傷害,被熱的工件燙傷,以及被地面上的碎片刺傷。 2廢冷卻液 廢冷卻液通常隨著金屬碎片和工件釋放出來,蒸發到空氣中成為水霧,變成廢水。當廢冷卻液含有有毒的化學物質時,則廢的冷卻液對皮膚,氣管,肺等有害。如果它們釋放到河水或者土地中,周圍的環境就會被污染. 3噪聲。機械加工中的噪聲是由發動機,清除加工工件,旋轉工件的動態不平衡,以及在切削刀具和工件之間的震動和摩擦等產生的,噪聲對長期待在車間工人的心情和聽力造成危害. 3.3.2廢物最小化的實踐。綠色制造的高效率的干滾機。環境污染的最小化主要依靠有效的管理和機械刀具的綠色特點,它是加工過程的執行單元。與我們合作,重慶機械工具廠為綠色制造生產了一種新的高效率的干滾機, YKS3112型。它的綠色特點可以概括如下 1高效干滾無切削液的實現; 2對稱結構,能迅速的噴射熱碎片的噴射器的采用; 3全密封的蓋子,推拉式安全門及煙霧收集器被應用來消減冷卻液煙霧,清潔加工環境。 3.4.復合決策。 能源消耗和環境污染兩方面最小化的實踐, 機械加工系統中針對綠色制造的多方位政策制訂,專家們已將他們的研究專著于一系列機械加工過程中政策的制訂問題。 Investigations and practices on green manufacturing in machining systems WANG Hua王華 ,ZHOU Hai-bin (周海斌, LUAN Jun-jun欒俊俊 , SHEN Xiao-ming申曉明 Institute of Green Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Univeristy , Chong qing4 0 00 30 ,China Abstract A machining system is a typical manufacturing system. A green manufacturing function framework of machining systems is structured to describe the traits of input, output and control elements in the system. Based on the function framework, the green manufacturing problem framework of machining systems is presented. The green manufacturing problems in machining systems are classified into three classes and related series of subclass problems. The three classes of problems in the green manufacturing problem framework are the problems of the minimization of resource consumption, the minimization of environmental discharge, and the synthesized minimization of both of them. A series of investigations and practices on green manufacturing in machining system, performed by the authors for quite a long period, are introduced in brief, such as the optimizing system for raw material cutting, the matching system for energy-saving in machining, the design of highly efficient dry hobbing machine tools, the multi-objective decision-making model for green manufacturing in machining systems, and the decision-making supporting system for green manufacturing in machining processes. Key words machining system; green manufacturing; framework CLC number T H186 Document code A I. INTRODUCTION A machining system, mainly comprised of machine tools and auxiliary setups, is an input and output system that machines raw materials or semi-final products into final products or semi-final products for the next phase production by changing the shape or traits. The manufacturing unit, shop floor or production line made up of machine tools,are the typical machining systems. The machining process that is transforming the machining resources into final products or semi-final products is a value adding process for the resources,and the machining system is an important system creating fortune for the human beings. However, during the transformation process, two side effects are concomitant. One is the resource consumption problem, and the other is the environmental impact problem. With the implementation of stringent environmental laws and regulations and the increasing public awareness for environmental protection, the above two problems are paid attention to by both academic communities and industries. Some investigations are performed. But it has been so long time that people have ignored these two problems in machining systems and the related concrete problems are not solved to the satisfactory level yet. Green manufacturing is a new manufacturing concept and a philosophy consistent with the sustainable development strategy. From the viewpoint of green manufacturing, this paper structures a holistic framework for the above mentioned problems. Based on the framework, some research practices and achievements on green manufacturing are presented, which are performed in recent years by the Institute of Green Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing University, China. 2. GREEN MANUFACTURING PROBLEMS IN MACHINING SYSTEMS Green manufacturing is a modern manufacturing mode considering both the environmental impact and the resource consumption during the whole product life cycle from design, fabrication, packaging, transportation, usage, recycling, to waste disposal, and its objective is to minimize the negative environmental impacts and maximize the utilization rate of resource, and harmonize optimization of economic benefit and social benefit with the maximum integrated benefit. Substantively, green manufacturing is the embodiment of the sustainable development strategy and the cycle economy modern manufacturing 51 .A machining system is a basic manufacturing system, and the concept and philosophy of green manufacturing can be applied absolutely into it. Fig. 1 gives a function framework model describing the manufacturing function of machining systems, the outputs of which are the final products or the semi-final products But in fact, while running the process of machining systems, the tangible and intangible environmental discharges are produced in the due course of production as shown in Fig. 2. These environmental discharges mainly include 1 Solid wastes, w, leftover material, scrap iron , etc. 2 Liquid wastes, w2 waste coolant, waste lubricant, etc. 3 Gaseous wastes, z u, coolant smog, dust, etc. 4 Noise, w 4. 5 Others, w heat energy, vibrations. Fig .2 gives the green manufacturing function framework of machining systems, which highlights the material input, the process control, the product output, and the environmental discharges in the machining systems for green manufacturing. According to the green manufacturing function framework of machining systems, many significant green manufacturing problems can be found and derived. Generally they can be classified into the following three classes; 1 The minimization of resource consumption, MIN R; i1,2,?,and it mainly includes three sub-problems minimizing materials consumption, minimizing energy consumption and auxiliary material consumption. 2 The minimization of environment al discharges, 3 The synthesized minimization of both resource consumption and environmental discharges, MIN Ri,W; i1,2,?;J1,2,?.For example, there are numerous decision-making problems in machining processes, such as the decision- making of process routes, the decision making of machine tools choice, tool choice, coolant. The traditional decision-making problems in machining mainly consider three factors namely time, cost and quality. However, the machining elements involved in these decision-making problems mentioned above have substantial influence on both resource consumption and environmental discharges in machining process. Therefore, from the viewpoint of green manufacturing, the two factors of resource consumption and environmental is charges also need to be considered in the decision- making problems. The three classes of problems mentioned above can be further sub-classified to construct the green manufacturing problem framework of machining systems as shown in F ig.3, Obviously, the analyses of material flow, energy flow and waste flow are the precondition to solve the three classes of problems. 3 INVESTIGATIONS AND PRACTICES ON GREEN MANUFACTURING IN MACHINING SYSTEMS 3.1 3.1.1 Material flow and its minimization Material flow analysis model Considering for a single machine kind Material in machining systems and supposing there are q processes, a material flow model can be established as Fig. 4.In Fig.4 he Utilization rate U Loss rate L,and Waste W of material consumption in the whole machining system can be calculated. model, including Utilization rateU,Loss rate L,and WasteW of material consumption, are not dependent on the machining process of the part but on the machining allowances, which are fixed by the part designer and technicians. The ways of saving material are rough part selection and scrap recycling. Normally, rough parts are cut down from a large sheet or cylindrical material. There are various methods for cutting rough parts from the raw material, and the utilization rates of raw material are different when cutting rough parts in different ways. Therefore,it is an efficient way to save-materials by optimizing raw material cutting. The optimizing system for raw material cutting is eveloped. Es3.The software is mainly used to optimize the cutting of bars and boards. So far, the software has been bought and used by more than 500 enterprises in China. 3.2 Energy Flow 3.2.1 Energy flow analysis model many existing investigations are focused on the Cutting energy in machining Systems 71 .However, from the viewpoint of green manufacturing, the energy consumption in machining systems should be considered systematically. Fig. 5 shows the energy flow in the basic machining system machine tool system. The cutting energy is only a part of the total energy consumed in the machining system as Shown In fig.5 3.2 .2 Practices on the minimization of energy consumption – matching system for energy-saving in machining systems with multi- machine tool. According to Fig.5 three main methods can be adopted to save energy 1 By reducing the Cutting Energy Power .by optimizing the part design and process parameters. 2 By reducing the Power Loss By improving the efficiency of machining systems. 3 By reducing the power losses caused by the unloaded power of machining systems. With a series of the oretical analysis and experimentations, a new energy-saving method is discovered. In a machining system with multi-machine tools and multi-work pieces, it is an effective way to reduce the energy consumption in the machining system by matching the machine tools and work pieces in the optimum way. The reason is that the trait of unloaded power of each machine tool is not the same. Therefore, the energy consumption for machining the part on different machine tools is different even though the process parameters of the part are kept the same. The following is a simple exampleE83. There are two horizontal lathes, N o.0 1 and No.0 2,and two batches of work pieces need to be turned. According to the process requirements, the spindle speed should be 600r/min when turning work piece A, and 185r/min when turning work piece B. There are two feasible matching schemes as shown in Fig. 6. Since the cutting power P, and additional power P, are approximately equal when a work piece is turned on different lathes, the unloaded energy consumption can be compared. According to the test data of unloaded energy consumption, scheme I consumes 0. 79 kW h and scheme II consumes 0.65 kwh. It is obviously concluded that if scheme B is adopted, 0. 14 kwh of energy, which is 21.5 of energy, can be saved when turning the two batches of work pieces. This energy-saving method has been applied in several factories, and good energy-saving effects have been achieved. 3.3 Waste flow and its minimization 3.3 .1 Waste flow analysis The wastages in machining process are mad up of leftover material, rejects, out tools, waste coolants, etc. scrap iron, worn- 1 Leftover material, Scrap iron, etc. Usually, these solid wastes can be recycled adequately. But if the manage measures in shop floor are not taken well, some injury or accidents might happen, such as injury by the splashing scraps, scald by hot work, pieces, and pricked by the scraps on the ground. 2 Waste coolants. The waste coolants are usually discharged adhered to the scraps and work pieces, evaporating in the air as smog, and becoming wastewater. As the coolants contain poisonous chemical substances, the waste coolants are harmful to skin, trachea, lungs, etc, and if they are released into the river or ground, the surrounding environment will be polluted. 3 Noise. Noise in machining process is produced by motors, clearance between running parts, dynamic imbalance of circumrotating parts, the vibration and friction between cutting tool and work piece, etc. Noise causes harm to the hearing and mood of the workers who stay in the shop floor for such a long time. 3.3 .2 Practices on wastes minimization-design of highly efficient dry hobbing machine tools for green manufacturing The minimization of Environmental discharges mainly depends on the effective management and the green traits of the machine tools, which is the exe

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