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外文翻译----3R原则对工业设计的影响-其他专业.doc

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外文翻译----3R原则对工业设计的影响-其他专业.doc

本科毕业设计外文翻译 学生姓名 专业班级 中文译名 3R原则对工业设计的影响 外文原文名 The impact of 3R principles to industrial design 外文原文版出处 http//resourcesrecycling.blogbus.com/logs/40286888.html 译 文 摘要当工业设计为人们创造了现代生活和生活环境的同时,也进一步加速了自然资源及能源的消耗。进而,这种状况将会危害生态平衡、威胁人类的生存和?#20013;?#21457;展。可?#20013;?#21457;展战略,提出了20世纪90年代,得到了很多人的肯定。“3r原则”是循环经济的重点,在这样的情况下诞生的“3r”原则,成为各种各样的经济活动以及该地区的设计和制造的重要原则。根据对3R原则内涵的理解,本文分析了4R原则对工业设计的影响和指导。此外,本文试图讨论设计的概念,这是3R原则在工业设计领域的延伸,并且最终解释说明了在循环经济中的3R原则在工业设计领域的应用。 关键词“3r”原则 工业设计 循环经济 新设计 1介绍 工业设计作为贯穿各领域的技术与艺术学科密切相关,以维持其经济和社会的发展及进步。它可以简要地概括为首先,它的服务,为工业大规模生产,制造工业产品的价值,提高附加值。。第二,它引领时尚,有效刺激消费,这样消费者不仅使用的产品的同时,还可以欣赏的新材料和新技术;第三,它把技术与市场挂钩,?#20849;?#21697;提高竞争力;最后但不是最不重要的,它能够带来的创新企业。因此,经济发展的需要,工业设计,已成为不可缺少的国?#19994;?#32463;济建设。 然而,随着传统工业设计创造高?#20998;?#30340;现代生活方式和生活环境,促进经济发展,也加速了资源和能源的消耗。更重要的是,它危害地球的生态平衡,并产生了一个严肃的极大的破坏问题,威胁人类的生存和可?#20013;?#21457;展。尤其是过度商业化的工业设计、功利主义和过度追求利润,实施?#21543;?#21697;已计划废除系?#22330;?#32780;没有考虑生产、使用、工艺废料,如环境,影响资源。可以这样说,人们在不适当的和过度消费模式的生活,成为至关重要的工业设计的客观的介质。鼓励人们消费的本质则是工业创造型设计一个科学健康的生活方式。 2循环经济模型和”3r”原则 经济是从事生产、消费和生殖的活动,这种活动是为了满足人类的物质需要的满足自己物质.循环经济被认为是证明原经济、农业经济、工业经济的时间后的后工业经济,以工业经济是不同的资源与环境之间的关系。随着全球经济周期?#20405;?#33258;然生态系统的物质循环和能量流动重建经济体系的,所以它进了自然生态系统的和谐的物质能量回收工艺对产品清洁生产、资源回收、高效为特征的生态经济发展模式的回收,也就?#20405;?#25152;周知的生态经济,绿色经济。 2.1经济模式之间的关系,环境和资源 人类生存和经济活动?#35272;?#30340;资源和环境。?#29615;?#38754;,它的来源是人类的材料体系;另?#29615;?#38754;,它承受着经济活动所产生的人类废弃物中的各?#32440;?#33394;。但是地球能提供资源是有限的,即使它必须有能力以?#25442;?然而它是对人类经济活动主体的能力也有限。温室气体排放 工业经济发展模式是一种资源?#21360;?#27745;染”产品单向流动造成的材料和开放经济,这就导致了全球开放资源的损耗和浪费,以?#21543;?#24577;环境?#29616;?#24694;化。 ?#21451;?#29615;经济发展模式是“一个资源的可再生资源,绿色的产品”所构成的物质能量的过程,在这个闭环反馈回路闭环系统,能保持经济生产的低,高?#20998;省?#20302;消耗,它将使经济活动中对于自然资源和环境的影响减少。 2.2解释”3r”原则循环经济模式 3R原则是最基本的表现在经济周期中,具体内容如下 “减少”的原则是第一的原则,这是循环经济发展的源头控制方法,它要求来源的经济活动设计阶段,注重使用资源节约型和污染减排要求,具有更少的资源实现建立生产或消费的目的,通常在生产领域的节能生产工艺、材料和节约资源,产品体积小、重量轻、操作简单,方便,包装要求?#28304;?#21040;减少废物排放的目的,在消费领域、还一原则还改变消费者的生活方式和提倡适度消费和绿色消费。“重用”的原则是第二次循环经济的原则,那就是,过?#28845;?#21046;方法,旨在提高产品和资源利用效率,它要求在产品设计到最初的?#38382;?为多个物品包装避免早熟变为荒凉。在设计上,使用标准尺寸的零件、修理和升级为了替换,从而延长使用寿命产品;而在消费领域,促进购买耐用消费品,以减少使用一次性产品,如售后服务通过强化手段,尽可能地延长产品寿命,不浪费。 “循环”的原则是循环经济的第三原则,即终端控制生产方法和消费所产生的废物过程中,通过“资源”的核燃料的回收的手段可以重复使用的原材料或产品,把它放回消费。资源所谓的一类资源通常包括原文和二次资源。原来的一类资源是资源浪费的形成后也用原有产品,子资源是资源浪费在各?#20013;?#20135;品。促进经济的发展将废弃物回收的来源相结合的原件及子类要充分实现资源循环利用资源。 3 “3r”原则的影响为工业设计的 3R原则不仅在从产品的设计、生产、销售、使用、处置等在整个生命周期的各个方面产生影响,而?#19968;?#23545;工业设计本身,更广泛而深刻的变化 3.1概念设计的影响 在现代工业经济、产品设计通常是为人民服务,就从人们满足需求和解决问题为出发点,并没有考虑到后续产品、合理利用资源和能源消耗和污染物排放减少对环境及其它生态问题。3R原则在设计理念的影响下,?#21360;?#20197;人为本?#27605;頡?#22825;人合一”的绿色设计的,尊重人们日益增长的需求,还要考虑生态系统的安全。循环经济模式下的工业设计的设计理念,把人与自然的和谐共处,共同发展,首先运用系统理论及校准的所有行为的工业设计系统,从产品设计开始的时候得到优先考虑宏观环境,注重协调运行的各种要素的产品的生产工艺,为了达到系统优化。这里,环境因素的起始点和终止点整体设计,经过设计,努力地提高和?#26723;?#20135;品在生产、使用、回收工艺,如造成不良影响的环境。所以绿色设计的产品是在“天人合一”思想的指导下,达到人与自然和谐发展的基本原理,考虑到人机系统环境,综合优化的工业设计的一个新概念。 3.2设计的影响,风格 简单是一种审?#38647;?#27714;上的极端分子的设计风格,流行容?#33258;?0世纪,在美国80岁时。如果我们说在工业经济模式,简单的产品设计风格设计美学是一个主观追求的人,然后又在循环经济模式下,结构的最简单、最吝啬的材料,最?#35272;?最原始的外观造?#22270;?#26420;的产品设计、可?#20013;?#21457;展观念是一个产品的具体体现。3R原则意义这个简单的风格更深入、具体、实用的意义。 首先,功能的前提下,保证只要材料的选择可以回收再用,?#28909;?#29983;物材料,以较少的材料精制而成,合适;第二,推进。小而?#39304;薄?#23569;即是多”,轻量化和愉快的?#38382;?#30340;产品。第三,该设备的设计特点,评价对象整理、定义、必须总是关注合并,以简化、优化,使核心职能简要产品;第四,本产品专为简便易行,清晰的语言;五,结构简单,容易造成的选择;六、可?#21040;?#26448;料、结构简单的解决方式,如扣在一起。 3.3 设计的影响的方法 “3r”原则的影响指导下,绿色设计的实施方法有模块化设计的,可移动的设计,可回收的设计、长寿命设计。 模块化的设计是在一定的范围内不同的功能或不同功能、不同规格表演同样的产品的泛函分析的基础上,设计成一系列功能模块,通过模块的选择、组合能构成不同的产品来设计来满足不同需求的来。模块化设计的好处第一,?#20849;?#21697;具有良好的性能回收爆破、解决不同类型的产品设计和资源浪费;第二,它可以是易于使用或复制功能的?#25351;矗?#25552;高独立成分的多功能性,一旦特重用产品,可以回收;第三,提高产品的维修延长使用寿命的产物。 产品设计为可拆卸的设计阶段,使部分产品,性能优良的破坏。有利于使用的内容组件或再生材料节省既可保护环境和材料。拆除的设计要求,产品第一,通透的各种配件,尽量使用可分离的连接,例如螺纹连?#21360;?#32479;一型紧固件,数量的减少紧固件,不要用?#38468;印?#38086;?#21360;?#36830;接及其他不可移动的连接;第二,在选择和加工的原材料,拆除的连接;使用和重复使用的可回收材料的类型及材料, 现有各种材料,尽可能少。。 可回收的设计?#20405;?#20135;品设计,充分考虑产品组件的各种材料的可能性,回收处理回收,?#25351;?#24490;环和产品的成本相关了一系列的问题,从而节约材料和减少废物污染环境、最小为目的的设计方法。长寿命设计产品的设计基于经济指标的生活为确保产品、价值、环保要求同时努力使我们的产品达到延长使用寿命缓慢的资源消耗的设计方法。具体包括以下设备首先,提高产品的可靠性和耐用性;第二,产品便于维修,维修;第三,使用标准的、模块化的产?#26041;?#26500;。 3.4设计的影响,材料 在指导和规范3R原则、产品设计、材料选用,应考虑首先,尽?#32771;?#23569;使用的材料。试着用高?#20998;?#30340;材料来提高产品的使用寿命;禁止使用污染材料与大,寻找相应的吸声材料替代;再利用尽可能多的可回收材料的使用。其次,首选的声音的生态环境的首选材料,经过分解的浪费与自然世界吸收材料、低功率、低成本的首选材料,首选,low-polluting及加工,加工容易,无污染或少污染材料,首选材料回收。最后,为了减少使用的各种类型的物质,以?#26723;?#25104;本费用的回收材料;保持原资料,尽量使用简单的材料,使用的合金材料,?#21592;?#20813;资料对环境有危害的产品表面处理材料组成部分;标记为材料,便于循环利用?#21462;?4 4R来自”3r” 在循环经济模式,整个产品生命周期的前特后,最终产?#36153;?#20280;到特回收。?#26723;?#27880;意的是,从废物的思考,所以第二个念头产品设计不再是一个产?#20998;?#21069;,但其他产品。因此,设计过程中,我们会把它叫做“重建重新设计”。 4.1概念的重组 所谓的重建,即通过产品元件以及他们的综合设计方法,利用节省资源。给英国环境设计联盟是定义为“产品,材料的结构,有意义的方式再?#38382;?#29992;,为了节省资源的前提下的目的,延长产品生命周期、发掘潜力生态价值的设计方法。”简而言之,产?#20998;?#24314;?#20405;?#22312;整个产品生命周期重用的设计。 他们是否再造设计的新趋势,或者设计的改变,这自我活动与可?#20013;?#21457;展战略中的线属于绿色设计的范围。如果据说绿色设计通常被认为是整个产品生命周期环境的影响,和设计考虑产品生命周期结束时减少环境影响的问题,这是”3r”原则推广工业领域的设计。因此,用结合”3r”原则,作为一种循环经济的原则各位工业设计。 4.2?#38382;?#30340;重组 针对产品再造新产品,以有效地利用原有的零部件和产品和材料。产品再造有多?#20013;问?对同一产品再造可以有多?#20013;问?可以分为同化、异化的重组的重组。 新设计指的是同化之前和之后重新设计的产品,已经回收再造自己重建的部分不是前后变化。例如,汽车音响,之前的重新设计,再造的家被转换成声音。 新设计指的?#20405;?#32452;的异化是不同设计之前和之后的组件重用的产品是必要的,?#21592;?#23558;来使用的转变。例如,重组之前,变成了一个?#21482;?#37096;件的重新整合步话机后的一个重要组成部分;又如,的重新整合,通过重组的旧牛仔裤之前都可?#21592;?#25104;?#28845;恪?#32972;心?#21462;?5结论 循环经济是实现可?#20013;?#20154;类发展的新的经济发展模式,是企业的核心,3R原则的实?#31034;?#27982;周期的循环经济是思想的根本体现。“再设计”是能够充分利用3R扩展的工业领域的设计和开发,是一种深入的研究和?#23548;?#30340;新任务,它应该是,连同3R原则,成为一种标志的指导周边设计,循环经济的原则服务于工业设计。 国际联合会工业设计的主席彼得说“引导人类发展的设计作为一种重要的因素,除了可能的毁灭自?#19968;?#28781;人类,人类的到来也可能成为一个更美好的世界的捷径。”今天,再设计在国家可?#20013;?#21457;展战略中充当框架的角色,工业设计在变化,积极寻找新方向引导循环经济的发展,并在各级发?#24188;?#29992;。工业设计将变成对我国循环经济起到强大作用的先驱力量。 英文原文 AbstractWhile industrial design creates modem life and living surroundings for people,it also accelerates the exhaustion of the natural resources and the energy 80urces.Besides,it has done harm to the ecological balance,and threatened the existence and the sustainable development of human beings.Confront with this situation,the strategy of sustainable development,proposed in 1990s,is accepted by many people.Recycling economy and its key point,3 R principle,were born for this situation and become important principle in all kinds of economic activities and in the area of design and manufacture.By decoding the connotation of 3R principle,the article analyzes the influence and the guidance over industrial design of 3R principle.Furthermore,the article tries to discuss the conception of redesign,which is the extension of the 3R principle in the area of industrial design,and explicates4R principle of industrial design for recycling economy at last. Key words3 R principle;industrial design;recycling economy;redesign 1 Introduction Industrial design as a cross-cutting technology and the arts disciplines, it is closely related to the economy and to maintain its development and progress of society. It can be summarized First, it services for industrial mass production, making industrial products enhance the value and value-added. Second, It leads the fashion, to effectively stimulate consumption, so that consumers not only use the product at the same time, but also enjoy the new technology and material; Third, it puts technology to link up with the market, making products enhance competitiveness; Last but not the least, it can bring the innovation into the enterprise. Therefore, the economic development needs industrial design which has become indispensable to the countrys economic construction . However, along with the traditional industrial design creating high-quality modern lifestyle and living environment and promoting economic development ,it also speeds up the consumption of resources and energy. What’s more ,it dose harm to the ecological balance of the Earth and brings about a serious of great damage to human survival and sustainable development. Especially the excessive commercialization of industrial design, utilitarian and excessive pursuit of profit, the implementation of merchandise has plans to abolish the system without taking into account production, use, process waste, such as the environment, the impact of resources. It can be said that people are in inappropriate and excessive consumption patterns of life, the industrial design objectively becomes essential medium to encourage people to uncontrolled consume, which is countered to the essence of industrial designcreating a science and healthy way of life. Facing the threat of human survival and sustainable development, in the 20th century, people began to question the sustainable development of humanity ,to carry out a profound reflection on sustainable development and to put forward a suitable model of circular economy , the principle of circular economy is 3R ie Reduce, Reuse, Recycle which is of great significance to the implementation and promotion of socio-economic stability, sustainable development Against this background, the concept of sustainable development into rapid economic development is inextricably linked to the design, based on this ongoing exploration and practice. 3R principles intended to sort out this article on various aspects of industrial design and the guiding role, and attempts to explore the 3R principles of industrial design at the extension. 2 Cycle economic model and the principle of 3R Economy is engaged in production, consumption and reproduction activities, which is to meet human material needs of their own material .Recycling economy is considered following the original economy, the agricultural economy, industrial economy after the time of the post-industrial economy, with the industrial economy is different between the resources and environment relationship.Following the economic cycle refers to the natural ecosystem of the material circulation and energy flow reconstruction of the economic system so that it harmoniously into the natural ecosystems of the material energy recycling process to product clean production, resource recycling and efficient recycling characterized eco-economic development patterns, also known as eco-economy, green economy. 2.1 The relationship between economic model, environment and the resources Human survival and economic activities rely on the resources and the environment.On one hand ,it is the source of the human beings material system; on the other hand, it bears the economic activities of human waste generated by the various roles. The Earth can provide resources but are limited, even though it must have the ability to purify, however it is subject to human economic activity the ability of emissions is also limited. Industrial economic development patterns are from One Product One resource pollution posed by one-way flow of material and an open economy, this openness has led to a global depletion of resources and waste, as well as the serious deterioration of the ecological environment. Circular economy development pattern is from one of resources of renewable resources, one of green products posed by the material energy of the closed-loop feedback loop process, this closed loop system, can maintain economic production of low, high-quality, low-waste, which will be economic activity of natural resources and environmental impacts to minimize damage. 2.2 Interpretation of the circular economy mode 3R principle 3R principle is the basic manifestation of the economic cycle, and its specific contents are as follows Reduction principle is the first principle of circular economy, that is the source of control method, which requires the source of economic activity - the design stage, pay attention to the use of resources-saving and pollution reduction requirements with fewer resources to achieve the established purpose of the production or consumption In the production areas, usually the energy-saving production processes, materials and conservation of resources, the products of small size and lightweight, and easy and simple packaging requirements in order to achieve the purpose of reducing waste emissions; In the consumer area, reduction of the supremacy of the principle of a change in consumer lifestyles and advocate moderate consumption and green consumption. Reuse principle is the second principle of circular economy, that is, process control methods, with the aim to improve the products and resources use efficiency, it calls for product design to initial the form of packaging for multiple items to prevent premature become waste. In the design, to the use of standard-sized parts, repair and upgrade in order to replace, thus prolonging the service life of products; In the consumer area, to promote the purchase of durable consumer goods, to reduce the use of disposable products, such as after-sales service by strengthening the means to extend the product life as possible and not waste. Recycling principle is the third principle of circular economy, that is, terminal control method of production and consumption in the process of waste generated, through the resources of the means of its re-processing of raw materials can be re-used or product, put it back on consumption. Resources of the so-called class of resources usually include the original and secondary resources. The original class of resources is the waste of resources after the formation of the same with the original products, sub-resource is the waste of resources into different types of after the new products. To promote waste recycling economy will be the source of the original and sub-class of combining resources in order to fully realize the recycling use of resources. 3 The impact of the 3R principle of to industrial design 3R principle is not only on products from the design, production, sales, use, disposal and so on throughout the life cycle have an impact on all aspect, but also on the industrial design itself, a more extensive and profound changes 3.1 The impact of design concept In modern industrial economy, the product design is often to serve the people, just from the people to meet needs and solve the problem as the starting point, and do not consider the follow-up products, use of resources and energy consumption and emissions on the environment and other ecological problems. 3R principle in the design concept under the influence from the people-oriented towards the harmony between man and nature of green design, while respecting the needs of people, but also consider the safety of the ecosystem. Cycle economic model of the industrial design under the design concept, put people and nature live in harmony and common development in the first place, the use of systems theory and Calibration of all acts of industrial design, from product design at the beginning of the macro-environment had priority to consider and pay attention to the coordination of products that run the various elements of the process in order to achieve system optimization. Here, the environmental factors are the starting point of the whole design and end points, through the design, efforts to improve and reduce the products in the production, use, recycling process, such as the adverse impact of the environment. So Green Design Products are in the harmony between man and nature under the guidance of thought to the harmonious development of man and nature, the principle of human - machine system one considers the environment, a comprehensive optimization of the industrial design of a new concept. 3.2 The impact of design style Simple is an aesthetic pursuit of extremists on the design of easy style, popular in the 20th century, in the United States age 80. If we say that in the industrial economic model, the simple style of product design aesthetic is a subjective pursuit of people, then in the recycling economy mode, the structure of the simplest and most parsimonious of the materials

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