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外文翻譯---基于DSP技術為機車軸承設計故障診斷監控系統-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯---基于DSP技術為機車軸承設計故障診斷監控系統-其他專業.doc

原文 Design of Fault Diagnosis Monitor System for the Locomotive Bearings Based on DSP Technology Abstract The rolling bearing is one of the key parts of the locomotive running components, because it condition is directly related to the performance and safety of locomotive. In this paper, the monitor system for the locomotive bearings based on DSP TMS320LF2407A is designed. This system diagnoses the rolling bearing fault using vibration analysis method. It is based on comprehensive resonance demodulation and fast Fourier transform technique, and it adopts related methods to handle the result of the FFT. It effectively improves the response characteristics, sensitivity, differentiate and measurement accuracy of the bearing failure monitor system, and it can fulfill the monitor and prediction of the transient fault in the course of the locomotive running. Key words resonance demodulation technology; digital signal processor; related methods I. Introduction The higher safety is required to the trains because its speed is raised constantly. Bearing fault is one of the major factors causing eventful traffic accidents and affecting rail safety. Currently the railway system usually uses the bearing temperature detector to monitor the locomotive bearing condition. Theoretical analysis and a lot of practice show that the bearing temperature detector can prevent accidents from occurring to some extent, but most of the bearing fault is not sensitive to temperature. When the temperature of the bearing is beyond the range and the system gives an alarm, the worse damage of the bearing has occurred, and even the incident had happened. Therefore, to find the fault more early and accurately, the more advanced monitoring means must be adopted. Most of the bearing fault is very sensitive to vibration signal. The fault can cause vibration of the bearing increased. Compared with monitoring the temperature of bearing, the analysis and processing results to the vibration signal has more advantage than the temperature means. II. System composing and work process Based on the need, the monitor of the bearing fault monitoring system to the locomotive bearing sets two detections itineration detections and fixed detections. The itineration detection is used in the normal conditions, and the fixed detection is used for the continuous monitoring of the fault bearing. The system adopts special composite sensor to collect the vibration of the bearing and the temperature signal at the same time. After the data processing, the corresponding fault levels and rise in temperature are got. The data acquisition unit is designed in this system. Alarm information will be transmitted to all carriages through interfaces so that the staff can handled in time, and the same time, the fault data and the related information of the train such as the current location and speed will be transmitted to the dispatch center through GPS, which is convenient to adopt corresponding measures. The system block diagram is in Fig. 1. Dispatch Center GSM system Industry computer Instrument for data Instrument for fault diagnosis Instrument for fault diagnosis Instrument for fault diagnosis Fig.1 System block diagram III. The key technology of the design for the monitoring system A. The spectrum analysis means for diagnosing bearing fault Under normal circumstances, all parts of the rolling bearing inner circle, outer circle, roller, holding frame will retain the stable relative movement state. If the surface of some element except for holding frame has crack, and this crack is in the surface of the rolling adjacent component, the instantaneous vibration impulse must be produced. Assumed that the number of the roller in the bearing is Z; the diameter of the roller is d; the average diameter of the bearing inner circle and the bearing outer circle the diameter of the roller revolution path is D; the frequency of the bearing rotation is f0. Assumed that the inner circle is fixed and the outer circle is circumvolved, the vibration frequency brought by the surface defects of different bearing components can be derived. These frequencies can be called the fault characteristics frequency of the inner circle, outer circle and the roller. Compound sensor Temperature signal Fault vibration signal DSP digit signal processor Envelop detection Envelop signal Frequency band pass filter Temperature signal processing Fig.2 Signal pretreatment B. Resonance demodulation technology We can collect vibration signal using the resonance of the bearing components, and detect the envelope of the fault signal using envelop detector, which can fulfill the analysis to the fault character. This is called “resonance demodulation technology”. The component surfaces such as the inner circle, the outer circle and the roller of the rolling bearing are easily damaged in local place in the course of operation such as pitting and peeling off, cracking, scratching etc.. If the surface of some bearing components have local damage and the rollingobject presses the fault dot in the course of carried operation, it must bring impact. But the impact lasts a short time, and the frequency range of the energy divergence is wide, so the energy within the scope of vibration frequency is small. Due to the wide bandwidth of the impulse, it is certainly that it includes high frequency intrinsic vibration inspiring by intrinsic frequency of the inner circle, outer circle, roller, holding frame on rolling bearings. The resonance demodulate signal is separated by band-pass filter of center frequency equal to its intrinsic frequency. Then the envelope demodulation is carried through to there attenuation oscillatory wave using software or circuit, the frequency component of the high frequency attenuation vibration is wiped off. We only obtain low-frequency envelope signal with the information of the fault character. The spectrum analysis of the envelope signal is carried through by digital signal processor, we can obtain very high frequency resolution ratio and can easily find the frequency of the corresponding fault impact, thereby we can fulfill to diagnose to the bearing fault. With resonance demodulation technology, the electric resonator which resonant frequency is much higher than normal vibration frequency and limited high-harmonic frequency is designed. Therefore, it can effectively restrain the low-frequency signal including normal vibration signal. The resonance response magnifies the signal amplitude of the impulse signal and the time of its oscillation islonger, thus the fault signal is broadened in the time domain signal. After the envelope detection and low-pass filter, the low-frequency resonance demodulation signal with high signal-to-noise ratio is exported. In the signal processing system shown in figure 2, the bearing component brings resonance under the impact, form the continuous attenuation oscillation. To research each attenuation oscillation, we can see that its frequency is the natural frequency of bearing components, the amplitude of attenuation oscillation is relate to intensity of fault impact. The amplitude of envelope signal of the attenuation oscillation reflects the size of the fault, and the repeat frequency of the envelope depends on the fault location. System has the performance of anti-jamming of the low frequency vibration, high signal-to-noise ratio. C. Envelope detection A bearing with fault in the course of rolling will bring regular vibration. Different fault has different character frequency. The character frequency system detecting is the frequency of the signal envelope the frequency which is accrued by the collision of the fault on bearing element, not the vibration frequency of the bearing. When we analyze the fault signal, the resonant frequency carrier wave must be removed by envelope demodulation. Because the envelope signal has fully included all information of the fault, removing carrier wave will not have any adverse impact on the analysis. Keyboard Liquid crystal display Bearing temperature and air temperature differential amplifier Composite sensor Vibration signal amplifier frequency band filter Envelop detection Low frequency pass filter Digital signal processor DSP TMS320LF2407A Serial communication Alarm Fig.3 the hardware block diagram of the bearing fault monitoring IV. Hardware and software design The hardware block diagram of the monitor for the bearing fault is shown in Fig. 3. The circuit includes two parts the vibration signal pretreatments and the bearing state analysis. The signal preprocessing part fulfills the amplification, conversion, resonance demodulation of the signal; the bearing state analysis part fulfills spectrum analysis of the signal, correlation method processing, fault grading processing, the bearings status report and communicating with peripheral equipment and so on. There are mainly three kinds of FFT algorithm to realize in DSP 1 only including addition and subtraction operations without operations of the plural rotation factor; 2 including the operation of the plural rotation factor; 3 the operation of bits location inversion. After data is processed by this way, the workload of vibration component calculation in DSP is reduced evidently. The real-time capacity of system response can be advanced. Modularization design is adopted in the design of the software, which includes collections of the vibration signal and the temperature increment signal, A/D conversions, data pretreatments, FFT transforms, calculations of the power spectrum, judgments of the fault grading, saves of the data, displays of the data and transmissions of the data. The task dispatch is carried through by the way of event triggers and time triggers. To remove the interference, the “correlation means” processing to the results of FFT transform is carried out, which assure the fault signal picked up effectively. V. Conclusion FFT methods of vibration signal is adopted in system design,at same time differential temperature measurement methods is added into system to judge synthetically. The high capability DSP completes signal processing. This system can commendably satisfy the requirement for real-time processing. It monitors the signal of vibrations and temperatures with combining locomotive monitor and ground analysis. The earlier diagnosis and alarm for locomotive bearings fault can be given in order to assure locomotive running safely. REFERENCES [1] Wang Dezhi,The diagnosis and maintain of rolling bearing[M],Beijing China Railway Publishing House, 1994, [2] Shi Huafeng,Yin Guohua,etc,Fault diagnosis of locomotive bearing[J],Electric Drive For Locomotive, 2004,(2) 4043, [3] Mei Hongbin,The libration monitoring and diagnosis of rolling bearing[M],BeijingChina Machine Press,1996, [4] Mei Hongbin,The fault diagnosis for rolling bearings using envelope analysis,Bearing,1993 ,(8)3034, [5] Feng Gengbin,The libration diagnosis technology of the locomotive fault[M],Beijing China Railway Publishing House,1994. [6] Jiang Simi. The hardware exploiture of TMS320LF240x DSP. Beijing China Machine Press, 2003. [7] Qing Yuan Science and Technology. The application design of TMS320LF240XDS. Beijing China Machine Press, 2003. 譯文 基于DSP技術為機車軸承設計故障診斷監控系統 摘要 滾動軸承是機車運行組件的關鍵部件之一,因為它直接關系到機車的性能和安全。在本文章中,監控系統為機車軸承基于DSP TMS320LF2407A的設計。這個系統使用振動分析方法來診斷滾動軸承的故障。它是在全面的共振解調和快速傅立葉變換技術基礎上,采用”相關的方法”來處理FFT的結果。它有效的提高了軸承故障監控系統的反應特性,靈敏度,辨別和測量精度,它可以預測火車頭運行中的故障和監測瞬態故障。 關鍵詞 共振解調技術;數字信號處理器;相關方法 1引言 列車有較高的安全需求是因為它的速度在不斷提高。軸承故障是造成多樣的交通事故和影響鐵路安全的主要因素之一。目前,鐵路系統通常采用軸承溫度探測器來監察機車軸承的狀況。理論分析和大量的實踐證明,軸承溫度探測器可以在一定程度上防止意外發生,但大部分的軸承故障對溫度是不敏感的。當軸承的溫度超過范圍系統將發出警報,但不幸的是這時候軸承損傷已經發生,甚至是事故已發生。因此,為了更早期更準確的找到故障, 必須采用更先進的監測系統。大部分的軸承故障對振動信號非常的敏感。故障可能會導致軸承的振動增加。經分析和處理結果表明與監測軸承溫度相比振動信號比溫度的手段有更多的優勢。 2系統的組成和工作過程 根據需要,監視器的軸承故障監測系統為機車軸承配置了兩套偵測系統itineration檢測和固定的檢測。 Itineration檢測是用在正常情況條件下,而固定檢測用在軸承故障的連續檢測。這個系統采用特殊復合傳感器在同一時間收集軸承的振動和溫度信號。經過數據處理,將獲得相應的故障水平和上升了的溫度。在這個系統中設計數據采集單元。報警信息通過接口會傳送至所有的車廂,使工作人員可以及時的處理,與此同時,故障數據和列車的相關信息如目前的位置和速度將通過全球定位系統轉交給派遣中心,派遣中心將采用相應的措施.該系統方框圖如圖1。 圖1 系統方框圖 調度中心 GSM系統 工業計算機 文書資料 儀器的故障診斷 儀器的故障診斷 儀器的故障診斷 . 3為監控系統設計的關鍵技術 3.1頻譜分析 在正常情況下,滾動軸承的各部分內圈,外圈,滾動體,保持架將保持相對穩定的工作狀態。如果一些元素的表面保持架除外已有裂縫,而且這些裂縫在相鄰表面也有,這時瞬時脈沖振動必須開啟。 假設在軸承中滾動體的數量為Z;滾動體的直徑為d;軸承的內圈和外圈的平均直徑為D;軸承的頻率是。假設內圈是固定的,外圈是回轉的,振動頻率可以通過不同軸承零件的表面缺陷得到。 這些頻率可以被稱為內圈,外圈和滾動體的特色故障頻密程度。 3.2共振解調技術 我們根據軸承零件的共振可以收集振動信號,并使用包絡線探測器檢測故障信號的包絡線, 包絡線探測器可以充分的分析故障的性質,這就是”共振解調技術”。一個零件的表面,如滾動軸承的內圈,外圈和滾動體極易在運作的過程中損壞如點蝕,剝落,裂縫和劃痕等。如果一些軸承零件的表面在操作過程中有局部損傷和壓力機故障斑點,必然會給操作帶來影響。如果影響持續的時間很短,而且能源分歧的頻率范圍是廣泛的,那么振動頻率的能源與范圍是小的。由于帶寬的寬的脈沖,它理所應當的包含了固有高頻率的振動,通過滾動軸承的內圈,外圈,滾動體和保持架的固有頻率。共振解調信號被分離是通過帶通濾波器的中心頻率和它的固有頻率相等實現的。然后包絡線解調是通過有衰解振動波使用的軟件或電路開展的,抹掉高頻率衰解振動中的高頻成分。我們只獲得低頻包絡信號的故障特征的信息。包絡信號的頻譜分析是通過數字信號處理器來進行的,我們可以取得非常高的頻率決議比例和很容易的找到相應的故障的頻率,從而我們可以軸承故障的診斷。 共振解調技術,電動諧振器的共振頻率的設計高于正常的振動頻率和有限高次諧波的頻率。因此,可以有效的抵制低頻信號包括正常的振動信號。共振回應放大信號振幅的脈沖信號和它的振蕩時間加長。因此,故障信號是擴大在時域上的信號。在包絡檢測和低通過濾器之后,低頻共振解調信號高噪聲信號比被輸出。信號處理系統如圖2所示。復合式傳感器 頻率帶通濾波器 溫度信號處理 包絡檢測 DSP的數字信號處理器 故障振動信號 溫度信號 包絡信號 圖2 信號預處理 在軸承組件帶來共振的影響下,形成的振蕩不斷衰減。通過研究每個衰減振蕩,我們可以看到,其頻率是軸承組件的固有頻率,振幅衰減振蕩是受到故障強度的影響。振幅包絡信號的衰減振蕩反映故障的大小,而且頻密的重復程度取決于對故障的定位。系統有抗干擾低頻振動,高信號與噪聲的比例的表現。 3.3包絡檢測 軸承故障在軋制過程中經常回引起震動。不同的故障有不同的字頻。該字頻系統檢測是包絡信號的頻率這個頻率被積累通過對軸承元件碰撞的故障,而不是軸承的振動頻率。當我們分析故障信號,共振頻率載波必須除去包絡解調。因為包絡信號已充分包括了所有故障的信息,消除載波,將不會有任何不利于分析的影響。 4硬件和軟件設計 硬件框圖如圖3所示 軸承溫度和空氣溫度差分放大器 復合傳感器 振動信號放大器 頻帶濾波器 包絡檢測 低頻通濾波器 鍵盤 液晶顯示器 TMS320LF2407A的數字信號處理器 串行通信 報警 圖3 軸承故障監測硬件框圖 該電路包括兩部分振動信號預處理和軸承狀態分析。信號預處理部分符合信號的擴增,轉換和共振解調。軸承狀態分析部分滿足頻譜分析信號,”相關法”處理,故障分級處理,軸承狀況報告和與周邊設備溝通等。 實現DSP主要有3種FFT算法1、只包括加法和減法,沒有運作的復數旋轉因子。2、包括運作的復數旋轉因子。3、比特位置反演的運作。通過這樣的數據處理,振動元件計算在DSP中的工作量明顯減少。系統反應的時間可以得到改進。 模塊化設計是通過軟件的設計來實現的,軟件的設計包括振動信號的集合和溫度增量信號,A/D轉換,數據預處理,FFT轉換,計算功率譜,故障分級的判斷,保存數據,顯示數據和傳送數據。任務調度是通過事件觸發和時間觸發這種方式進行的。用來消除干擾,”相關的意思是”FFT變換的結果進行處理,以保證故障回升信號有效。 5結語 振動處理的FFT方法是采用系統設計,在同一時間差溫測量方法中加入綜合評定的系統。高能力的DSP完成信號處理。這個系統可以滿足實時處理的要求。它結合機車監控和地面分析監測振動的信號和溫度。早期診斷和報警裝置為機車軸承故障提供保障能保證機車運行安全。 參考資料 [1] 王德志. 診斷和保持軋制軸承[M]. 北京中國鐵道出版社,1994 [2] 石華豐,殷存毅華. 故障診斷機車軸承[j]. 電氣傳動機車,2004 [3] 梅紅冰. 振動監測與診斷滾動軸承[M]. 北京中國機械出版社,1996 [4] 梅紅冰. 故障診斷滾動軸承使用包絡分析,軸承,1993 [5] 馮耿賓. 振動診斷技術的研究機車故障[M]. 北京中國鐵道出版眾議院,1994 [6] 姜思米. 硬件開發tms320lf240x DSP [M]. 北京中國機械出版社,2003 [7] 慶袁. 應用設計tms320lf240xds [M]. 北京中國機床出版社,2003

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