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外文翻譯--通信系統簡介-其他專業.doc

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外文翻譯--通信系統簡介-其他專業.doc

中文2040字 Introduction to Communication System It is often said that we are living in the information age. Communication technology is absolutely vital to the generation, storage, and transmission of this information. Any communication system moves information from a source to a destination through a channel. Figure 1 illustrates this very simple idea. The information from the source will generally not be in a form that can travel through the channel, so a device called a transmitter will be employed at one end and a receiver at the other. Source Transmitter Receiver Destination Figure 1 simple communication system The source or information signal can be analog or digital. Common examples are analog audio, video signals and digital data. Sources are often described in terms of the frequency range that they occupy. Telephone-quality analog voice signals, for instance, contain frequencies from 300Hz to 3kHz, while analog high-fidelity music needs a frequency range of approximately 20Hz to 20kHz. Digital sources can be derived from audio or video signals can have almost any bandwidth depending on the number of bits transmitted per second, and the method used to convert binary ones and zeros into electrical signals. A communication channel can be almost anything a pair of conductors, an optical fiber or a free space that we live. Sometimes a channel can carry the information signal directly. For example, an audio signal can be carried directly by a twisted-pair telephone cable. On the other hand, a radio link through free space cannot be used directly for voice signals. Such situation require the use of a carrier wave will be altered, or modulated m, by the information signals in such a way that the information can be recovered at the destination. When a carrier is used, the information signal is also known as the modulating signals. Technology is at the core of many new and emerging digital information products and applications that support the information society. Such products and applications often require the collection, sometimes in real time. The ability of technology to handle real world signals digitally has made it possible to create affordable, innovative; and high quality products and applications for large consumer market for example digital cellular mobile phone, digital television and video games. The impact of is also evident in many other areas, such as medicine and healthcare. For example in patient monitors for intensive care, digital X-ray appliances, advanced cardiology and brain mapping systems and so on, digital audio, for example CD players; audio mixers and electronic music and so on. And personal computer systems for example disks for efficient data storage and error correction, moderns, sound cards and video conferencing and so on. Most of the major cities in the domestic bus stop artificial voice. Every one of the key points from the driver or attendant to stop by voice. But sometimes due to various factors such as weather, vehicle congestion, flight attendants are feeling the effects of the changes. There being given the stations reporting stations, especially for passengers not familiar with the topography of the city, causing a lot of unnecessary trouble. Well thus affect the image of a city construction window, then developed automatic stop system inevitable. As required before the docking system bus GPS information latitude and longitude information, etc., longitude and latitude information generated by the distance between bus stops with the message that this is going to experience the tedious, use the micro-controller difficult to achieve, and when using chips, the proper solution of this problem. Using radians per second in the mathematics dealing with modulation makes the equation simpler. Of course, frequency is usually given in hertz, rather than in radians per second, when practical devices are being discussed. It is easy to convert between the two systems per second, when practical devices are being discussed. It is easy to convert between the two systems by recalling from basic AC theory, ω2πf. In modulation, the parameters that can be changed are amplitude E, frequency ω, and phase θ. Combinations are also possible. For example, many schemes for transmitting digital information use both amplitude and phase modulation. Multiplexing is the term used in communications to refer to the combining of two or more information signals. When the available frequency range is divided among the signals, the process is known as frequency-division multiplexing FDM. Radio and television broadcasting, in which the available spectrum is divided among many signals, are everyday examples of FDM. There are limitations to the number of signals that can be crowded into a given frequency range because each requires a certain bandwidth, For example, a television channel only occupies s given bandwidth of 6MHz in 68MHz bandwidth of VHF. Parallel DSP chip to enhance the performance of a traditional improved through the use of multiply-add units and the Harvard structure, it goes far beyond the computational capabilities of the traditional microprocessor. A reasonable inference is chip operations by increasing the number of modules and the corresponding number of bus linking computational modules. The chip can be doubled to enhance the overall operational capacity. Of course, such an inference two preconditions must be met First, the memory bus bandwidth as necessary to meet the increase in the number of enhanced data throughput; In addition, various functional units involved in the parallel scheduling algorithm is its complexity can be achieved. An alternative method for using a single communication channel to send many signals is to use time-division multiplexing TDM. Instead of dividing the available bandwidth of the channel among many signals, the entire bandwidth is used for each signal, but only for a small part of the time. A nonelectronic example is the division of the total available time on a television channel among the various programs transmitted. Each program uses the whole bandwidth of the channel, but only for part of the time. It is certainly possible to combine FDM and TDM, For example, the available bandwidth of a communication satellite is divided among a number of transmitter-receiver combinations called transponders. This is an example of FDM. A single transponder can be used to carry a large number of digital signals using TDM. This course presents a top-down approach to communications system design. The course will cover communication theory, algorithms and implementation architectures for essential blocks in modern physical-layer communication systems coders and decoders, filters, multi-tone modulation, synchronization sub-systems. The course is hands-on, with a project component serving as a vehicle for study of different communication techniques, architectures and implementations. This year, the project is focused on WLAN transceivers. At the end of the course, students will have gone through the complete WLAN System-On-a-Chip design process, from communication theory, through algorithm and architecture all the way to the synthesized standard-cell RTL chip representation. 通信系統簡介 人們常說我們正生活在一個信息時代,通信技術對信息的產生,存儲與轉換有著至關重要的作用。 任何通信系統的都是通過信道將信息從信源傳送到目的地,圖1所示為一個簡單的系統。來自信源的信息一般是不能通過信道直接傳輸的 ,因此在一端要用到被稱為是發射機的裝置,另一端要用到被稱為是接收機的裝置。 信源 轉換器 接收機 信宿 圖1 簡單通信系統 信號源或信息信號 可以是模擬的或數字的。常見的例子是模擬音頻信號、視頻信號及數據。信息源常被描述為信號所占用的頻率范圍,例如,電話質量的語音信號,包含著300 Hz3kHz的頻率范圍,而模擬高保真音樂信號大概需要20 Hz20kHz的頻率范圍。 數字信號源于音頻或視頻信號,或由數據組成(如文字和字符)。數字信號可以有任意帶寬,這要取決于每秒鐘傳送的比特數和所采用的將二進制1和0轉換成電信號的方法。 通信信道可以是任何媒介一對導體、一條光纖或者是我們生活的自由空間。有時信道可以直接承載信息。例如,語音信號可以直接有一對雙絞線電話電纜來承載。另一方面,自由空間無線鏈路不能直接用于承載語音信號,這就需要使用一個載波信號,它的頻率能夠使語音信號通過信道傳輸或傳播。載波有信息信號改變或調制,這樣信息才能夠在接受端被恢復。當使用載波時信息信號被稱為調制信號。 通信技術是許多新的和正在涌現的支撐信息社會的數字信息產品和應用的核心,這些產品和應用要求收集,分析,傳輸,顯示和存儲現實世界的信息,有時候則需要實時實現。通信技術數字化地處理現實世界信息的能力,使得廣大的消費市場如數字蜂窩移動電話,數字電視和視頻游戲等等。創造可生產的,新的,高指令的產品和應用成為可能,DSP在其它領域的影響力也十分明顯的,例如醫學,健康監護,病人監護,數字X光機,先進的心臟和腦電圖系統等等,以及數字音頻,例如CD播放器,音頻混頻器和電子音樂和個人計算機系統,例如有效數據存儲的磁盤,誤差校正,調制解調器,聲卡和視頻會議等等。 當前國內主要大城市的公交車大都采用人工語音報站,即每到一站由司機或者乘務員按語音鍵來進行報站。但有時由于受到各種因素如雨雪天路滑、車上擁擠、乘務員心情的變化等的影響,會出現報錯車站,漏報車站的情況,給乘客特別是不熟悉本市地形的乘客帶來了不必要的麻煩,進而會影響到一個城市的窗口形象工程建設,于是開發研制自動報站系統成為必然。系統中由于要求對接收到的公交車GPS定位信息(經緯度信息等)進行處理,由經緯度信息生成站牌與公交車之間的距離信息,這之間會經歷繁瑣的計算,用一般的微控制器難于實現,而當采用處理芯片時,這一問題就很好解決了。 調制在數學上采用弧度單位,能釋放流程變得簡單。當然,在討論實際裝置時,頻率通常用赫茲來表示,而不是用弧度每秒來表示,運用交流基本理論ω2πf,兩者之間很容易轉換。 調制時,能夠改變的參數是幅度E頻率ω和相位θ。復合調制是可能的,例如,發送數字信息的電路既可以采用幅度調制又可以采用相位調制。 多路復用是通信的一個術語,它是指將兩個或更多的信息復合在一起調制,當在信號中劃分可用頻率范圍時,這個過程被稱為頻率復用。 無線電和電視廣播是我們每天都能夠感受到的FDM例子,在許多信號中劃分它們的頻率,由于每種信號都需要占用一定的帶寬,因此,對于有些擁擠在給定頻率范圍內的信號來說,就要受到限制。例如,一個電視信道在68MHz VHF 帶寬內,只給定占用6MHz帶寬。 數字化技術正在極大地改變著我們的生活和體驗。作為數字化技術的基石,數字信號處理技術已經、正在、并且還將在其中扮演一個不可或缺的角色。核心是算法與實現,越來越多的人正在認識、熟悉和使用它。因此,理性地評價通信器件的優缺點,及時了解通信的現狀以及發展趨勢,正確使用芯片,才有可能真正發揮出DSP的作用。現代數字信號處理器的特點和發展趨勢是通信的發展,必須兼顧3P的因素,即性能 、功耗和價格。總的來說,隨著VLSI技術的高速發展,現代通信器件在價格顯著下降的同時,仍然保持著性能的不斷提升和單位運算量的功耗不斷降低。 選擇單一通信信道發送多個信號的方法是采用時分復用,為取代多信號信道對可用帶寬的分割,時分復用的每一路信號占用了整個帶寬,但卻只占用了很少一部分時間。以一個電視節目為例子,時分復用相當于所發送多個節目對一個電視頻道總的占用時間的分割。盡管每個節目占用了信道的整個帶寬,但只占用了時間的一部分。 將FDM與TDM結合在一起使用是當然可以的,例如。在一些被稱為是發送與接收一體化的轉發器中劃分出可用帶寬,就是一個FDM的應用例子,即可以用單一轉發器攜帶大量的TDM數字信號。 這當然是一種由上而下的方法,以通信系統的設計This course presents a top-down approach to communications system design.The course will cover communication theory, algorithms and implementation architectures for essential blocks in modern physical-layer communication systems coders and decoders, filters, multi-tone modulation, synchronization sub-systems.課程將涵蓋通信理論,算法和執行架構至關重要的大廈在現代物理層通信系統(編碼器與解碼器,過濾器,多音調制,同步個子系統) 。 The course is hands-on, with a project component serving as a vehicle for study of different communication techniques, architectures and implementations.該課程的手-對,同一個項目的組成部分,服務作為一種工具的研究不同的通信技術,架構和實施。 This year, the project is focused on WLAN transceivers.今年,該項目的重點是無線局域網收發器。 At the end of the course, students will have gone through the complete WLAN System-On-a-Chip design process, from communication theory, through algorithm and architecture all the way to the synthesized standard-cell RTL chip representation.在結束課程后,學員將經歷完整的WLAN系統-對-一-芯片設計過程中,從傳播理論,通過算法和體系結構的所有方法合成的標準單元的RTL芯片的代表性。 Tansmitter

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