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外文翻譯--通過政府角色轉變加快中國旅游營銷的電子商務化-電子商務.doc

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外文翻譯--通過政府角色轉變加快中國旅游營銷的電子商務化-電子商務.doc

河北科技師范學院 本科畢業設計外文翻譯 Expediting Chinese Tourism Marketing in Electronic Business by Transforming Governmental Roles 院(系、部)名 稱 工商管理學院 專 業 名 稱信息管理與信息系統 學 生 姓 名馬建彪 學 生 學 號0811080213 指 導 教 師劉淑霞 2012 年 5 月 18 日 河北科技師范學院教務處制 Expediting Chinese Tourism Marketing in Electronic Business by Transforming Governmental Roles Abstract In less than 20 years, the tourism has become Chinese new economic growth point, which powerfully promoted Chinese economic boom and social development.China is gaining importance in the international tourism market for its historical and cultural attractiveness as a destination.However, as an extremely promising service industry, Chinese tourism is confronted with many difficult problems.The government is one of the main bodies which involved in the tourism.This study sheds more light on the governmental roles in tourism marketing based on E-business.Firstly, the paper analyses the characteristics of tourism in China and the existing problems.Secondly, we assess the level of current tourism marketing and discuss the principal barriers of implementation of E-business from an organizational and technical point of view respectively.Then we explored the governmental roles in electronic business.At last, conclusions are drawn. Keywords E-Business, Tourism marketing, Governmental roles, Public Administration 1 Introduction With the explosive growth of the Internet and Internet applications, the World Wide Web has captured the position to be the major enabler of building global information center.For the tourism, there is no surprise that Internet has become a new media to deliver first hand information about services or products to the customers around the world. The development of electronic Business E-Business has led to great changes in the tourism around the world. In less than 20 years, the tourism has become Chinese new economy growth point , which powerfully promoted Chinese economic boom and social development.The Chinese tourism has invested large amounts of money over last few years in the development of what is known as the‘Golden Tourism Project.’Chine, as a fast-growing developing country in Asia.is gaining importance in the international tourism market for its historical and cultural attract-tiveness as a destination.She has become one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations. The tourism destination is one of the key components of the tourism value.A destination can be understood as a complex subsystem of tourism principals and organizations, activities and attractions, which form the foundation for travelers’decisions when planning a vacation. In recent years,many efforts have been undertaken to build comprehensive information systems to market a destination.a region, or a country , and to get benefits from improved internal collaboration through these systems.During the process.Government involvement has greatly influenced tourism development.In most developing countries,the private sector generally has little experience with the tourism.So the governments in developing countries tend to be more actively involved in. Tourism in China has rapidly developed since the adoption of open-door economic reform policy in 1978.There is still little understanding about the role played by the Chinese government in the development of tourism.This paper sheds more light on the governmental role in tourism marketing of E-business.Firstly, the paper analyses the characteristics and the existing problems of Chinese Tourism.We assess the level of current tourism marketing and discuss the principal barriers of implementation of E-business from a technical and organizational point of view respectively.Then we explore the governmental role. responsibility and the task in tourism marketing of E-business.At last conclusions are drawn.Based on Chinas experiences.Some implications of the governmental roles for other developing countries are suggested. 2 Current Status of Chinese Tourism Marketing in E-business As we move into the Information Age , consumers’expectations are being radically altered.The Internet, more than any other technology , is teaching people that they can go online and quickly find out about any subject that is currently holding their interest.This character is important to the travel and tourism.Travel is information at the point of sale.Unlike most consumer goods such as televisions, cameras and cars.Travel cannot be sampled before the decision is made to buy it.This is also true of tourism’s product.It cannot be sampled before the traveler arrives.Thus, the decision to “purchase”the destination, that is to visit it, is based solely on information made available to the tourist.This may be recomme- ndation from friends.it may be brochure supplied by National Tourism Offices or perhaps advertisements.Increasingly, however, it is information that made it available on the Internet, particularly on the World Wide web.Tourists are tapping into the wealth of destination material on the World Wide web and using this is a primary source of destination information.The new truth for destination marketing organizations is that if you are not online then you are not on-sale within your key markets. Another inherent characteristic is mobility, where the entire tourist life cycle is integrated with the respective supplier processes.Obviously, suppliers’processes cross company borders,leading to enhanced E-business applications,enforcing cooperation between companies,and supporting mobile communication with the consumers. The tourism in China has achieved remarkable growth since 1978 in terms of visitor arrivals and tourism receipts.In 1982, the Government recognized tourism as an economic activity, and in 1986 China reiterated the importance of tourism nationwide by including the tourism in the national plan for social and economic development.The China National Travel Administration CNTA which is the national administrative body responsible for implementing short-term and long-term tourism policies in China, has played an important role in the development of the Chinese tourism at the national level.These factors have contributed to all increased amount of tourism activities in China, namely the growth of inbound tourism by overseas visitors, domestic tourism, and outbound tourism by Chinese residents. Owing to the economic gap between the different regions of China and the persistent income Differentials,the travel preferences of domestic tourists appeared to cover a complete spectrum from traditional sightseeing with lower expenditure to special interest tourism with higher expenditure from 1990s.With incomes increasing, the travel preferences of sightseeing destinations shifted from historic and cultural arease.g. Beijing , the capital city of the coun- try , and Hangzhou , Zhejiang provincewith large carrying capacity to natural landscape areas with smaller carrying capacitye.g. mountain resorts far away from cities;from traditi- onal national parks to newly developed areas.Animation tourism including folk tourism , recre- ation , and educational tourism, were on the rise.Special tourism programs such as outbound tourism, eco-tourism and sports tourism have already emerged.Greatly influenced by the dynamic income ladders,travel preference on the higher ladders tended to replace that on the lower ladders,thus each tourism product has a relatively long life-cycle.So there are kinds of e-tourism internet categories in China.Similar to most parts of the world,the information communication technologies ICT adoption level in tour operators in China lagged behind the airlines and hotels.However, the situation is gradually changing , but at a very slow pace.Evidently the tourism in China is heavily regulated with a high degree of government intervention.This is particularly the case for the air transportation. Along with the quick development of domestic tourism , especially during the three golden weeks On public holidays of May Day, National Day and Spring Festival , the National Holid- ay Tourist Forecasting System started its operation On September 21,2000.With such a system, tourist arrivals on all major tourist cities and visitor attractions and accommodation supply will be forecasted daily and publicized on the CNTA website as well as on other mass media, during the three golden works.People intended to travel can adjust their destination choice according to the forecasting results in order to avoid being caught in overcrowded attractions or cities. In March 2001 , CNTAthe China National Tourist Administrationconducted a survey of ICT adoption rate among 49 provincial and municipal tourism boards in China , According to the survey , the average IT adoption level is very low , both in terms of computer facilitation , trained personnel and communication infrastructure used.Only one-third of all tourism boards are fully equipped with internal information management system that can be readily conne- cted with the national information networking system ,known as Golden Travel Project , the latest move on ICT of CNTA.According to the Director of CNTA Information Center, whose opinion represents the views of government in e-tourism application in China , e-tour- ism application in China can be divided into two partsICT adoption and Intent involvement.In terms of ICT adoption , he pointed out that China had lagged behind Europe and America for about 10-15 years.He attributed such situation to five major issues *Lack of synergy among various sectors within the industry , i.e.without a networking system involving all players of the industry , the advantage of IT can hardly be fully recognized; *Lack of infrastructure required such as communication bandwidth , technicians ,information and processing standards,etc; *Lack of information service providers and intermediaries to assist tourist enterprises; *Fear of business/management process reengineering caused by technological innovation such as unwillingness to learn new knowledge , losing control of information or power , altering the habit of a life time formed by traditional business environment , adjusting new environment; * The information security problem, which is in a sense of cultural concern rather than technological. 3 Role ,Responsibility and Task the Governmental Shoulder The tourist authority in China, the CNTA was established in early 1980s.It plays a role of both tourism authority auditing the operation of tour operators, hotels and tour education institutions in China and destination image promoter via its overseas branches. The CNTA collaborates with Civil Aviation Administration of ChinaCAAC , Railway Ministry and Transportation Ministry.Local tourism boards have been established at both provincial level and municipal level , under the leader ship of both CNTA and local govern- ment, As the only destination management organizationsDMOin China , CNTA has adopted computer network systems since 1992,primarily focusing on accounting.statistics and issuing tourist information CD-ROMs. In CNTA, 90% of office staff have been using computers connected with the administe- ration Intranet , composed of four SQL servers , and linked with Internet via a 2m DDN. As demonstrated in Fig.2, the main function of the system is to deal with office paperwork . Since 1993,the server has been linked with local tourism boards at provincial level and muni- cipal level to collect statistical data on a monthly base.In 1997, the official destination tourist website , www.cnta.gov.cn, was developed for the purpose of marketing and promotion , pro- viding destination information on accommodation,accessibility ,attraction , catering,shop- ping and entertainment . But the Internet involvement of the Chinese tourism has proved to be a failure. The e-government management of tourism can only be built on the basis that all or most enterprises within the industry have been fully converted into e-businesses.However.this is far from the truth of Chinese tourism.In the current situation , the government should shoulder the responsibility and take the lead in the industry e- transformation . Perhaps the government should play a role of operator , regulator , investment stimulator , promoter , coordinator , educator and organizer in this area by providing certain guidance and assistance for enterprises.Among all the real estate developers.Chengdu Vanke’s grabbing and development on the land of Qianfeng Electronic Group , as one of the first enterprises in Eastern Suburb to vacate out of the downtown areas, is of typical implications.On January 16, 2003。the land of Qianfeng,were auctioned in the exchange floor of Chengdu National Land Resources Bureau,which was the first land to be sold to the public in Chengdu enterprises “Eastern Vacating”strategy and attracted many real estate developers from all over China . After fierce competition, Chengdu Vanke, finally obtained this land at the price of 1,760,000 Yuan per Mu and became the first powerful and non local developer to develop Eastern Suburb in a large scale.On the other hand , Qianfeng has benefited much due to twenty times price difference in lands in its move out.With the money collected from selling , Qianfeng has achieved its second technological innovations.fulfilling its aim of its redeveloping in the field and providing some useful implication to the followers.On the other hand Chengdu Vanke has developed a top living residency--Golden Home with constructions areas of more than 100,000 square meters and average price per square meter reaching 4100 Yuan , whose average price per square meter is more than 1000 Yuan higher than that in the nearby areas hence, Vanke has also benefited huge investment returns.Undoubtedly , win-win has been proved by this case to apply urban management in a city’s development instead of the used to be urban governance. Generally , the Chinese government should enforce the following functionsOperator,involving ownership and provision of the infrastructure for tourism development and operation of tourism business activities;Regulator formulating and implementing regulations to control tourism business;Promoterspending money on the promotion of tourism in the international market;and Educatorestablishing a system of tourism education institutions and providing tourism education and training programs. On one hand, the government can invest in information infrastructure development.On the other hand ,the government can push enterprises’ e-business transformation by either executive orders or other compulsory means , especially when currently many companies do not realize the importance and necessity of such transformation.For example ,as CNTA requested that all yearly inspection documents of tourist

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