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外文翻译--论我国非物质文化遗产保护【精品】文库吧文档共享平台

2019-05-04 格式:DOC

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1、集体的文化的创造是不成文的或无记录的,所以在保护的时候依然存在一些问题。 在二十世纪七十年代,联合国教科文组织商讨了世界文化遗产名录,其中包括自然景观。这促进更广泛的思考,人们意识到了保护非物质文化遗产的紧迫性。在随后的专?#19968;?#35758;中,专家们继续讨论制定建议和制定技术。直到年月这个讨论达到了顶峰,当年的联合国教科文组织总干事松浦?#25105;?#37070;首次宣布了个具有代表性的人类非物质文化遗产。 为什么用了这么长的时间才使这一概念融入国际意识。其中一个原因就是,这一概念长期与含糊不清“文化”联系在一起 。“遗产”和“无形”刚开?#23478;?#24456;难一起进行理解。第二,还有一个问题就是如何称呼这个专业术语。 “非物质文化遗产”这个术语经过多次讨论才最后确定下来。虽然术语有些模糊,但全世界保护非物质文化遗产的意识日益增强。 在宏观层面上,如果用?#28304;?#33258;然资源的方式?#28304;?#25991;化资源,文化资源很容易濒危或者消失。虽仍有超过种语言在这个星球上,但是语言学?#20197;?#27979;, 百?#31181;?#20116;十至百?#31181;?#20061;十五会在下一世纪里消失。绝大多数语言没有书面形式,有些语言甚至没有任何有形形式。一种语言彻底消失,这对于后人是一个无法弥补的巨大损失 。在微观层面上,许多人不希望渐渐失去了祖先的故事和有意义的经验。地方文化有一?#20013;?#30340;主张,“我的世界可能越来越大,但我仍然在一个小圈子里”。 在恶性的情况下,非物质文化遗产在宗教和种族的冲突演变成为暴力?#24405;?#26102;引起世界的注意力。 如何才能最好地理解和响应被联合国教科文组织指定为无形“杰作”的非物质文化遗产,这个问题引发了陪审团考虑和辩论。首先是定义问题。非物质文化遗产具体包括那些内容,这没有一个明确的答案。什么是无形的。

2、crafting Lithuanian wooden and metal crosses, the Niagassola So-so Baal musical tradition of Guinea. In a new program, UNESCO proclaimed these, among others, "masterpieces of intangible cultural heritage." Intangible cultural heritage is a technical term used by experts, not by shamans or musicians. It generally refers to immaterial aspects of culture--ephemeral products like stories and language itself, as well as to the beliefs, values, and forms of knowledge and skill that give cultures their vitality. This heritage can, for example, include wedding dances and funeral laments, artisans' skills and orally conveyed knowledge of farming. It can even include festivals and spaces where people gather。

3、ued until they reached a pinnacle in May , when UNESCO'S Director-General Coacher Matsuura proclaimed the first Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Why so long for this concept to make it into international consciousness。 Well, for one, it has suffered the problem of vagueness long associated with the term "culture." "Heritage" and "intangible" just compound the difficulty. Second, there's a terminology problem--what to call it。 It is hard to imagine the term "intangible cultural heritage" sliding off the tongue of any laureates. Vagueness and terminology aside, interest in the subject has grown with public awareness of globalization. On the macro-level, cultural resour。

4、y shared among a people。 If people alter their practice to respond to changing circumstances, should the tradition be seen as a successful adaptation to be treasured or as a deprived derivative to be shunned。 As hard as it may be to define this heritage, the question of its value looms larger. To some extent, every language is a masterpiece. How to weigh the worth of one language against another in determining value and significance--by the number of speakers, its role in history, the beauty of its poetry。 But perhaps more difficult is the question of if and how to preserve the wide range of this heritage. Is it more important to safeguard vanishing or fragile traditions than popular, vital ones。

5、 as treasures. Many nominations may be put forth with the best intentions, but some might reflect narrow interests of a group in power. Some minority traditions may be overlooked or even censored from consideration. Given that many folk traditions arise as forms of resistance to national domination, the idea of national nomination may be flawed. I must say that I was impressed with UNESCO'S selection of the first "masterpieces." One could take heart that in the age of globalization, local cultures have survived, and sometimes even flourished. One would appreciate that in an age of constant innovation, tradition had some lasting value. The power and tenacity of the selected traditions and their pra。

6、 it may also destroy the very meaning of the tradition, turning it into an activity staged for tourists. The very recognition of the value of intangible cultural resources can initiate or exacerbate conflicts--people within the society fighting for control over the tradition, people from the outside affecting the power balance within. Importantly, there is the question of what is being preserved --is it the tradition itself as product (for example, the song), is it the documentary record of the tradition (the recording), or the people (singers) and process (the singing)。 Finally, there is the issue of who decides. Nations belonging to UNESCO must nominate those cultural traditions for consideration。

7、l heritage has captured the world's attention when conflict over the practice of religions and the expression of ethnicities has turned violent. Questions of how best to understand and respond to intangible cultural heritage sparked debate among the jury considering nominations for the UNESCO's designation as intangible "masterpieces." First, there is the question of definition. A staged performance of an ancient play may have many tangible elements-written scripts, a temple theatre and elaborately crafted costumes. Yet does the fact that it is a performance render the tradition intangible。 How long does the cultural practice have to be around before it is called tradition。 Does it have to be widel。

8、and France. Intangible heritage was seen as an asset or resource to be protected, appreciated, utilized and managed--an idea traceable back to the Meiji period. In the West, meanwhile, jurists recognized the idea of intellectual property as an asset, defining copyright and patent as putting an idea into material form. But collective, cultural creation that was unwritten or unrecorded remained problematic--it still does. In the s, discussion of UNESCO'S World Heritage List, which later came to include natural landscapes, stimulated broader thinking about the need to safeguard intangible cultural heritage. Meetings of experts ensued, recommendations were developed and the technical discussions contin。

9、产生对抗的国家统治的想法,国家的提名可能有缺陷。 给我留下了深刻的印象是联合国教科文组织第一次认定的个非物质文化遗产。 人们可以放?#27169;?#22312;全球化的时代,当地的文化幸存下来了,有的甚至是蓬勃发展。人们会明白,在这样一个不断创新的时代,传统有一些永恒的价值。地方,国家和国?#39318;?#32455;提出了越来越多的保护计划,这将更好的继续激励子孙后代保护非物质文化遗产。 外文文献翻译原文 PRESERVING THE MAGIC Karin, Richard, UNESCO Courier MAS Ultra - School Edition, Vol. LXI (), pp.- We can be swept away by a traditional wedding dance or entranced by the poets of a vanishing language-but defining this intangible cultural heritage is far from simple, as UNESCO'S efforts to safeguard endangered masterpieces go to show traditional Kumquat opera of China, Novak theatre of Japan, Kutiyattam dance in India,men's polyphonic choral singing from Georgia, the ancient knowledge of 。

10、 外文文献翻译 保存奇迹 Karin, Richard,联合国教科文组织成员 《MAS Ultra大学版》第期()第-页 随着经济全球一体化的进程,在我们的视野中传统的婚礼舞和诗人的语言逐渐地消失,因此保护非物质文化遗产并非?#36164;隆?#25945;科文组织努力去保护濒危的杰作,同时向全世界?#25925;?#20013;国传统的昆曲,日本的能乐,印?#20219;?#36424;,来自格鲁吉亚的男子和弦合唱,制作立陶宛木制和金属十字架古老的知识还有几内亚的索索巴拉的传统音乐。在一个新的名录中,联合国教科文组织宣布这些为“杰出的非物质文化遗产”。 非物质文化遗产这个词语是一个由专家而不是?#36164;?#25110;音乐家所用的专业术语。它一般是指非物质方面的文化成果,如故事和语言本身,信仰和价值观,以?#26696;?#20104;文化活力的各?#20013;?#24335;的知识和技能。这一遗产可以包括婚礼和葬礼,舞蹈,工匠的技能,口头流传下来的农业知识,甚至可以包括节日和聚会,如坦坦地区的木赛姆牧民大会。您可能认为只有在博物馆才能发现这些文化的踪迹,但是这些文化在我们身边,是世世代代流传下来的优秀文化。这不是玻璃下的文化。 日本的活国宝 在日本,学者们早已认识到无形的文化。在世纪和世纪,语言学家,民俗学家和其他人试图整理世界的口头传统。然而,全面的“非物质文化遗产保护”是从近年来开始的。在年,日本意识到了传统文化的重要性,开始了一个保护活国宝的长期项目。 类似的方案随后在韩国,菲律宾,泰国,美国和法国开始。非物质文化遗产被看作是一种资产或资源而得到保护,赞赏,使用和管理,这个想法可以溯源回到明治时代。在西方,同?#20445;?#27861;学家把非物质文化遗产看作是知识产权中的一种资产,利用专利和商标制度去保护它。但是,有些。

11、传统。多久的文化习俗才能被称为传统。文化是否为人广泛传播吗。如果人们改变传统的做法是应对不断变化的情况,传统应该被看作是一个成功的适应过程还是失去其本来的面貌。 由于定义很难,所以意义就更加重大了。从某种程度上说,每一种语言是都一个杰作。 如何衡量一种语言在历史上的作用和价值,这很重要。 也许更困难的问题是如何广泛地保护遗产和传统。如何维护消失或脆弱的传统要。为了保持传统,我们让有维护能力的人去信奉它。我们可能会?#19981;?#26377;外观或声音的传统,但这一想法会使一些人们的劳动报酬低和生活条件艰苦。 辩论常常迸出智慧的火花,总能想到一些解决问题的方法。在某些情况下,非物质文化遗产可以被看作一个国家的精神财富,?#26723;?#25919;府去大力支持对非物质文化遗产的保护,在税收方面给予优惠并给予相应的补贴。 潜在的危险 保护非物质文化遗产是积极的,但它可能在社会实践中?#36824;?#20698;机构所控制。在一些情况下,仪式庆祝活动可能会被看作是利用资产促使商业投资。这可能会带来资金支持,但也可能摧毁具有重要意义的传统,把它变成一项为游客演出活动。非物质文化遗产资源的价值可能会引发或者加剧人们之间的冲突,因为人们在争取社会传统的控?#36843;ǎ?#20154;们试图从外部影响内部的权力平衡。更重要的是,什么是需要保存的文化,比如在一首歌里 ,需要保存的文化是创新的记录方法(录音),是人(歌手)还是过程(歌唱)。 最后,还有一个问题是谁决定那些是需要保护的非物质文化遗产。联合国教科文组织必须提名一些文化传统以供审议。许多提名可能会出于很好的意?#36857;?#20294;有些人可能只是为了狭隘的利益集团的权力,导致有一些少数民族的传统可能被忽略或者不能得到审议。鉴于许多民俗形式会。

12、 such as the wondrous Drama el-Fan square in Marrakech. You might find its traces in a museum--plants used by a traditional healer, for example--but it is mostly the living, oral tradition of a people. It is not culture under glass。 Japan’s living national treasures Scholars have long recognized the intangibility of culture. In the th and th centuries philologists, folklorists and others tried to document the world's oral traditions. Yet the term "intangible cultural heritage" is relatively recent. In , Japan initiated a living national treasures program to recognize the great skills of masters of the traditional arts. Similar programs began in Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, the United States 。

13、ces, in a similar way to natural resources, seem to be endangered or disappearing. Of more than , languages still spoken on the planet, linguists predict that to percent will not last through the next century. The great majority is not written and lacks any tangible form. When a language dies, there is a startling loss of knowledge and expression accumulated over generations. On the micro-level, many people do not want to accept a social universe of homogenized global consumers bereft of ancestors, stories, and meaningful experiences. Local cultural reassertion is a way of saying, "my world may have become bigger, but I still have a place within it." In less benign circumstances, intangible cultura。

14、 To preserve the tradition, it is necessary to preserve the ability of people to practice it. We might like the look or sound of the tradition, but its continued practice would condemn people to labor with low pay and terrible conditions. The strategies used also spark debate. In some cases, intangible cultural heritage may be viewed as a national treasure meriting government support, tax breaks, or subsidies. Looming dangers This can be positive, but it can also turn a practice controlled by the community into an institution controlled by bureaucrats. In other cases, a ritual celebration may be seen as an under-exploited asset prompting commercial investment. This may bring funding support, but。

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